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25 ways to take control of your fat loss

1. Interval weight training

What could be better than a workout that torches a huge amount of blubber in a single session? One that packs on muscle at the same time. That’s exactly what interval weight training (IWT) can do. ‘IWT is intense interval work that combines athletic lifts and free aerobic exercise,’ says strength and conditioning coach Steve Kowalenko (virtus-fit.com). So pair high-octane strength moves such as thrusters or cleans with bursts of cardio, such as rowing or running. 

‘When doing the strength moves, you’ll normally go with the weights and volume that build muscle – say 70% of your one-rep max for a move and ten reps,’ says Kowalenko. ‘During the cardio sections of an IWT you’ll work hard – at around 95% of your maximum heart rate – for one to two minutes so you boost your body’s ability to make explosive movements over a protracted period. This will improve your ability to go hard in almost any sport, from CrossFit to cycling.’

The high-intensity nature of the workout also burns loads of fat. ‘You’re working at maximum capacity so you power through the reps as fast as you can without breaking form, and then hammer through the cardio sections,’ says Kowalenko. ‘This places a huge demand on the respiratory, cardiovascular and nervous systems, so more fat and glycogen is burned to meet the energy demands. And because your body needs to process more oxygen in the hours after you’ve finished training to help your muscles recover, you’ll keep burning calories for long after the sessions has finished.’ Workouts that boost every other part of your fitness while getting you lean?  That’s the holy grail of fat loss training, right there.

Most IWT workouts come in three parts. Here’s one to try.

Part 1Three rounds of ten clean high pulls and a two-minute row, resting for two minutes between rounds and for five minutes before the second part.

Part 2 Three rounds of ten front squats and two minutes of explosive step-ups, resting for two minutes between rounds and for five minutes before the third part.

Part 3 Five-minute plank (broken into chunks if necessary).

2. FL4

Fat Loss 4 is a workout protocol where you do four moves back to back in a five-minute circuit. You do an upper- and a lower-body compound move and a core move, each for 30 seconds followed by a 15-second rest, then 1min 45sec of high-intensity cardio followed by 1min rest. ‘This works your entire body and makes your heart rate rocket,’ says PT Will Girling. ‘Try four rounds of pull-ups, squats, Russian twists, and a row.’

3. AMRAP

This stands for as many reps or rounds as possible, depending on the type of workout. So basically you go as hard as you can for the prescribed period with as little rest as possible. This creates a massive energy demand, which – you guessed it – torches calories. Here’s an AMRAP from top PT David Arnot to start with: four rounds of two minutes of ten kettlebell swings and six burpees. Rest for one minute between rounds.

4. Tabatas

These short, vicious four-minute interval workouts comprise eight rounds of 20 seconds of work separated by ten-second rests. You can do them with almost any move that has an explosive element. ‘Not only does it increase fat burning, it’s great for building mental strength, because getting through Tabatas is a challenge,’ says trainer Sean Lerwill. Try it with maximum-intensity rowing. 

5. Metcon 


Short for metabolic conditioning, this style of super-high-intensity workout uses any number of exercises repeated multiple times, often against the clock. ‘With metcons you disturb your metabolism enough that it takes a long time to return to baseline, so additional calories are burned after training,’ explains leading PT Andy McTaggart. ‘Want a quick metcon to try? Do three rounds of 250m row, 20 burpee reverse tuck jumps, 15 pull-ups and ten kettlebell snatches for time.’

6. Primal

As the name suggests, the Primal movement takes its culinary cues from the diet enjoyed by our caveman ancestors, focusing on meat and vegetables and omitting grains, legumes and processed foods. But unlike strict Paleo-style eaters, Primal dieters are encouraged to consume small quantities of dairy – provided it’s high-fat, organic and preferably from grass-fed animals. This makes the diet more flexible and practical and allows a greater variety of meal and snack choices, which makes it inherently easier to stick to. By removing processed foods, it also dramatically reduces your sugar intake and completely cuts out man-made trans fats, the two things most likely to spike your blood sugar levels and cause the body to store fat.

Another key aspect of Primal is its stance on carbohydrates. Unlike Paleo – which doesn’t provide any guidelines for macronutrient intake – Primal strictly rations carbs, ensuring you consume just enough to train and recover properly, which helps to maintain steady blood sugar levels and prevent increases in body fat. Your food intake comes mostly from protein sources such as meat, fish and eggs – which preserves muscle mass while you’re losing weight – served with low-starch green vegetables such as broccoli and kale. 

Primal also attempts to address lifestyle issues that can lead to unwanted weight gain, including lack of sleep and raised stress, which increases fat storage by raising levels of the hormone cortisol. This has a psychological effect too, because you’re far less likely to make poor food choices if you’re feeling energised and happy. 

Like all diets Primal requires discipline, even with the dairy allowance. But if you’re confident in your ability to avoid temptation, embracing your inner caveman can produce serious fat-loss results.

7. 16/8

A twist on the intermittent fasting format. Instead of spending entire days without food, 16/8 prescribes an overnight fast of 16 hours, with an eating window of eight hours to fit in three main meals. A straightforward option – if you don’t mind eating big during that daytime period.

8. Anabolic diet

This low-carb diet is designed to encourage your body to use fat as its main fuel source to keep you lean. Unlike its predecessor ketogenic, the anabolic diet – after an initial two-week no carb adaptation phase – allows carb refuel days on weekends to help you train. It’s effective, but it does require strict discipline.

9. If It Fits Your Macros

The attraction of IIFYM is that provided you hit daily targets for macronutrients – carbs, protein and fat – you can eat what you like. Keeping track of the numbers requires discipline, and it’s tempting to binge on junk food, but IIFYM is an excellent plan for burning fat. 

10. Gluten-free

Some people go gluten-free in an attempt to reduce unwanted digestive side effects they believe are brought on by grains such as wheat, barley, spelt and oats – but the gluten-free diet has also proven to be successful for fat loss. The reason? Most processed carbs and sugars contain grains, so by cutting them out, you’re avoiding two nasty causes of fat storage. The lack of bloating and wind is a bonus.

11. Chris Pratt 

Pratt was in such killer shape for Guardians Of The Galaxyit’s hard to believe that not long ago he was best known as chubby Andy Dwyer in the sitcom Parks And Recreation. The actor was around 135kg when he auditioned for the Marvel film and used a photo taken while filming Zero Dark Thirty to convince the money men he could get in shape.

To get him into a condition that allowed him to  play a comic-book hero without people sniggering, Marvel teamed Pratt up with trainer Duffy Gaver, the man who helped get Chris Hemsworth in shape for Thor, and nutritionist Phil Goglia.

Gaver trained Pratt for five months, putting him through up to six sessions a week, while Goglia doubled his calorie intake to 4,000 a day and made him drink 60ml of water for every kilo he weighed, which came to 8.7 litres a day.

‘Chris was completely out of shape when he started,’ says Gaver. ‘He’d lift weights four or five times a week for an hour at a time. For the first few months it was mainly traditional bodybuilding sessions to add size, targeting specific muscle groups on separate days.’ Later Gaver had Pratt swimming, cycling, sprinting, boxing, kickboxing, doing P90X sessions and even a triathlon, and in the later stages of training Goglia reduced his calorie count each week. By the first day of shooting Guardians Of The Galaxy Pratt had lost 27kg.

12. Kit Harington

Pompeii director Paul WS Anderson assumed Harington was ready to go when he was cast as the lead in the film, but he got a shock. ‘He was in pretty bad shape,’ says Nuno de Salles, his trainer for the film. De Salles put him on six weekly one-hour sessions of deadlifts and abs work, as well as a 4,000-calorie-a-day diet to get him ripped – and moved his topless shots to the end of filming.

13. Ben Affleck

When Affleck was cast as the Dark Knight in the upcoming Batman vs Superman film, many fans suggested he wasn’t in good enough shape. However, by the time Affleck filmed Gone Girl, he actually had to hide his physique. ‘That character is supposed to be out of shape, hungover and puffy and I had to train ahead of time for Batman,’ Affleck told Lorraine Kelly. Before filming he focused on full-body weights workouts, six days a week. Once filming started he reduced this to three or four weekly workouts.

14. Russell Crowe

Not only did Crowe have to get into shape for his leading role in Gladiator, he also had to shed the extra weight he’d put on to play whistleblowing tobacco exec Jeffrey Wigand in The Insider. He combined weights and cardio with boxing and fight training that involved swinging an 18kg sword.

15. Jake Gyllenhaal

Gyllenhaal needed to look fierce and strong to be convincing in the role of the adventurous and athletic prince. ‘We did a lot of core work to build the stability Jake needed to wield a sword,’ says his trainer Simon Waterson. ‘This involved performing a high number of reps to help him build muscular strength and endurance.’

16. SkiErg

You probably won’t have seen a SkiErg before, but this device – which admittedly looks like a wonderfully appointed torture rack – will start popping up in gyms everywhere over the next couple of years. The reason? The SkiErg – made by Concept2, the company responsible for creating the market-leading indoor rower – is one of the best weapons you can have in your fat loss arsenal.

‘When using the SkiErg you mimic the movements made during cross-country skiing, which triggers the specific strength and metabolic effects of the sport,’ says Kowalenko. ‘This means there’s plenty of bang for your buck when it comes to improving your fitness and shedding body fat.’ 

And that claim is backed up by data – according to a 2014 study by the Centre for Health and Sciences, a 92kg man can burn up to 1,303 calories an hour through cross-country skiing, so mimicking it in the gym offers you an excellent means of getting lean fast.

As well as very low body fat, cross-country skiers have the highest VO2 maxes of any athletes. This indicates the amount of oxygen your body can use when working at a high intensity. Having a high VO2 max doesn’t just mean you have an impressive work capacity, it also means you’re likely to live longer.

You work a SkiErg by pulling the handles down and squatting at the bottom during every rep. You’re working against the resistance of the same flywheel that’s in the Concept2 rower and it also has that device’s easy-to-use display system that tracks calories burned, distance covered and a host of other workout metrics. 

And when your gym does invest in a SkiErg or you decide to shell out the £700 it costs to kit out your home with one, Kowalenko has a high-intensity fat-scorching workout you can do on it.

Do ten 30-second sprint pulls, with 90-second rest periods between them. Perform ten pull-ups during each rest period.

17. Kettlebell 


‘Kettlebells allow you to pull off a huge number of moves, so you can move seamlessly between exercises in high-intensity circuits,’ says Girling. ‘The heavier ones often aren’t used in gyms so getting your hands on them should be easy.’ Here’s a quick workout to try: 30 seconds of kettlebell swings, double shoulder presses, goblet squats, cleans and renegade rows, then rest for one minute. Do four rounds.’

18. Rower

‘The rower works the whole body during every stroke,’ says Lerwill. ‘The more muscles you use at once, the more calories you burn. Studies have shown that interval workouts with work periods of around a minute have more fat-burning potential than shorter ones, so for a great fat-burning session, row at maximum capacity for one minute, rest for 30 seconds and repeat. To get through four reps is good, six great and ten monstrous.’

19. Olympic rings 

The rings are excellent for fat loss thanks to their versatility. Here’s McTaggart’s workout: ring dip, ring press-up, inverted row, ring chin-up, hanging knee to elbow. Do each move for 30 seconds, then rest for 30 seconds. Complete three rounds.

20. Barbell  

‘I use them with every client who wants to torch calories,’ says Arnot. Try his fat-loss workout: five rounds of ten deadlifts, five bent-over rows, five power cleans, five front squats, five push presses and five back squats. Rest as little as possible between moves and for 60 seconds between rounds.

21. Eggs Florentine

Ditch the waistline-expanding cereal and opt for this MF-enhanced eggs Florentine breakfast recipe, which provides plenty of protein to fill you up and help you avoid the urge to snack mid-morning. We’ve even added a healthier home-made hollandaise sauce that replaces butter with Greek yogurt. 

Ingredients (serves 1)

1 large egg / Pinch of salt / 4tbsp white wine vinegar / 2tbsp Greek yogurt / 1tsp lemon juice / 1tsp Dijon mustard / Pinch of cumin / Pinch of paprika / Pinch of chilli flakes / A handful of spinach / 1tbsp rapeseed oil / Pinch of cayenne pepper / 1tsp fresh chives, diced / 1 wholemeal muffin (optional)

To make

  • Bring a pan of water to the boil and add the salt and white wine vinegar.
  • Crack the egg into the pan and let it simmer for three minutes. 
  • While the egg is cooking, mix the Greek yogurt, lemon juice, mustard, cumin, paprika and chilli flakes in a bowl, then warm up the mixture in a pan over a low heat. 
  • Meanwhile, cook the spinach in a pan with the rapeseed oil 
  • for two minutes on a low heat. 
  • Remove the egg from the pan with a slotted spoon and serve with the spinach and sauce, either on the muffin or by itself for optimum fat loss results.

 22. Chickpea balti

Chickpeas are a good source of muscle-building protein – and having more muscle tissue helps you burn body fat – as well as filling fibre, which reduces the temptation to snack. Courgettes also contain fibre and manganese, which aids testosterone production for more muscle growth. Chilli peppers contain capsaicin, which aids fat loss by raising your metabolism.

23. Tuna satay skewers

Tuna is high in protein but also in omega 3 fatty acids, which stimulate the production of leptin, a hormone that promotes a feeling of fullness. Peanut butter is rich in unsaturated fats and although it may seem counterintuitive to eat fat when trying to lose fat, this is the kind that encourages your body to burn calories.

24. Chicken, mango and chilli salad

The capsaicin in chilli can raise your metabolism and keep it burning fat for up to three hours after you’ve eaten. Mango contains filling fibre, and if you leave the skin on, you’ll also benefit from phytochemicals that have been shown to inhibit the development of fat cells in the body.

25. Broccoli and stilton soup

Broccoli is high in chromium, which the body needs to build muscle, reduce body fat and produce energy. Garlic contains a compound called allicin, which is thought to prevent weight gain. Stilton, like all dairy foods, contains calcium, which can boost your body’s fat-burning capacity.

Источник: https://www.coachmag.co.uk/exercises/lose-weight/4231/25-ways-to-take-control-of-your-fat-loss

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What do your cravings mean?

Outside of that, milk has high levels of protein (8g) and fat (7g), so if you recently started a diet, your body may be searching for a quick way to appease your hunger.

Milk also contains 18 of the 22 essential vitamins and minerals our bodies need, a number of which – Vitamin A, Vitamin B-12, calcium, magnesium, and zinc – our bodies can’t produce on their own.4

See if your daily meals are giving you enough of these nutrients!

5. Cheese cravings

If you’re craving cheese, fried foods, or other high-fat options, you could need more essential fatty acids, such as omega-3.

Introduce oily fish, whole eggs, avocado, or take a good quality fish oil supplement. Symptoms of an omega-3 deficiency may include dry skin, dry eyes, or lower moods.5,6,7

5. Cheese cravings

6. Craving carbs

If you’re cravings savoury carbs, it’s a sign that you are low on energy.

To an extent, this is to be expected. An energy imbalance is the only way to lose unwanted weight. But carb cravings can also indicate blood sugar fluctuations.

Fill up on fibre-rich carbohydrate foods like fruit (apples and bananas are a good choice), root vegetables, and cruciferous vegetables.

6. Craving carbs

Источник: https://www.hollandandbarrett.com/the-health-hub/food-drink/nutrition/what-do-your-cravings-mean/

You're familiar with the fad diet cycle: Today's keto diet is yesterday's Atkins.

There's a near-constant rotation of weight loss plans that promise to supercharge your metabolism, tap energy stores, and ignite your fat burners—all in the name of a thinner, leaner you.

This content is imported from {embed-name}. You may be able to find the same content in another format, or you may be able to find more information, at their web site.

The GOLO diet is an exception only to the fad diet churn-and-burn cycle in that it builds itself around an expensive supplement. That pill, called Release, isn't FDA approved. The research GOLO uses to tout the power of Release isn't, well, all that powerful.

And there's more to it.

What, exactly, is the GOLO diet?

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The GOLO diet suggests that spiked insulin levels are the cause of slow metabolism, which, in turn, is responsible for weight gain. GOLO argues that when you can control your insulin levels, you won’t store excess sugar in your blood, which your body then stores as fat. Regulated insulin levels equal regulated weight.

The company makes this claim based on a team of doctors and pharmacists, though the company does not disclose the names and affiliations of these experts.

To its credit, the GOLO diet, unlike Whole30 or keto, does not prohibit or severely restrict you from eating entire food groups.

Instead, the GOLO diet focuses on whole, unprocessed, and unrefined foods. At mealtime, a dieter selects one to two servings from each category—proteins, carbs, vegetables, and fats.

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A GOLO dieter eats three meals a day, with breakfast and lunch meals larger than dinner. The diet permits snacks if you go longer than four to five hours between meals or if you exercise.

While this type of eating plan can work, this is where the GOLO diet starts to veer into questionable territory.

Supplement territory.

So what about this supplement, Release?

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One of the core components of the GOLO diet is a supplement called Release. The company claims that Release will help kickstart your body's ability to regulate insulin, increase your metabolism, and burn more fat.

Here's what's in Release: magnesium (15 milligrams in 1 capsule), zinc (10 mg), chromium (70 micrograms)*, rhodiola root extract, inositol, berberine HCl, gardenia, banaba leaf extract, salacia bark extract, apple extract, vegetable cellulose, dextrin, glycine, silica, citric acid

*These three ingredients are the only three ingredients with amounts listed on the label. The amounts of these ingredients, however, are not disclosed because the formulation is patented.

And then there's the price.

One bottle (containing 90 capsules) costs $50. Buy three bottles and you'll reduce that fee to $99, but you can't shop around for Release anywhere cheaper because you can only buy the supplement through the company.

Does the GOLO diet and Release actually work?

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Approach with caution, says Abby Langer, R.D., founder of Abby Langer Nutrition.

First, there's the idea that eating certain foods can drastically improve your metabolic rate.

“There’s nothing you can really eat to boost your metabolism to any degree that you will have a significant change in weight,” Langer says. “Your metabolism is dictated by genetics and muscle mass and, sure, hormones. But there are so many factors that something you eat won’t radically change it.”

Theories do exist linking increased insulin and weight gain, but scientists still aren’t certain which hormones control metabolism and weight.

Eva-Katalin

“It’s a theory for a reason. It hasn’t been studied a lot in humans,” she says. “We really don’t know definitively if insulin resistance is responsible for increased body mass.”

The GOLO diet centers on whole foods, and doesn't require you to eliminate food groups, which is a smart way to eat—but you don't need the GOLO diet to eat this way.

And you surely don't need a supplement, says Langer.

“Release is just a supplement. While it may not be harmful physically, I don’t recommend it," she says.

But what about GOLO's success stories and research?

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GOLO dieters have reportedly lost upwards of 100 pounds in just 12 months, and that can carry undeniable allure for someone looking to lose weight.

Except that that weight loss may have occurred not from GOLO's proclaimed ability to help regulate insulin, but instead from switching from processed foods to whole foods.

While GOLO leans heavily on the theory that insulin resistance slows metabolism, Langer cautions that there is no simple or accurate way to definitively measure a person’s metabolism. As a result, there is no way to measure the GOLO diet's success.

“This is the hallmark of a fad diet,” Langer says. “You give the followers an outcome that they can’t measure.”

And the research cited by the company?

“The research studies done to support GOLO’s claims were small,” she says. “The studies were done by the company. None of their stuff has been published in peer reviewed journals."

Rather than following one of these one-size-fits-all diets, Langer says the best path to an effective diet is to talk to a registered dietitian and carve out a plan tailored to you life, your goals, and your eating habits.

And consider this, as it pertains to all diets: If there was one diet on which everyone would lose weight and keep that weight off forever—wouldn't everyone already be on that diet?

This content is created and maintained by a third party, and imported onto this page to help users provide their email addresses. You may be able to find more information about this and similar content at piano.io

Источник: https://www.menshealth.com/nutrition/a30360542/golo-diet/

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When Vitamin And Nutritional Deficiencies Cause Skin And Nail Changes

If patients are not getting enough micronutrients or macronutrients, dermatologic conditions can arise in the skin and nails. Accordingly, this author offers salient insights on cutaneous manifestations of various vitamin and nutritional deficiencies.

Numerous skin and nail changes result from macronutrient and micronutrient deficiency. Macronutrients include carbohydrates, fats and protein whereas micronutrients include vitamins and minerals. In developed countries, vitamin and nutritional deficiencies most commonly result from poverty, restrictive diets, medication, alcoholism and inadequate dietary intake in the ill and elderly. Recognition of skin and nail changes can be an important tool for diagnosing underlying nutritional deficiencies.  

In developed nations, macronutrient deficiency is very rare. Protein and essential fatty acid deficiency occur more frequently than carbohydrate deficiency due to the high carbohydrate content of many foods. Both protein and essential fatty acid deficiencies result in cutaneous and nail disorders as these nutrients serve as building blocks for these structures.

Protein is a critical nutrient for human growth and maintenance of body tissues. Proteins perform a large array of functions including catalyzing metabolic reactions, replicating DNA, transporting molecules and cell signaling. Amino acids are the primary constituent of protein. The nutritional characteristics of a protein depend on its amino acid composition. There are nine essential amino acids: histidine, lysine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, tryptophan, threonine, valine and phenylalanine.

Protein-energy malnutrition results from inadequate protein intake. In developed countries, protein deficiency is most commonly associated with disease and advanced age. Severe protein deficiency results in kwashiorkor, which is characterized by edema, irritability, anorexia, ulcerating dermatoses and liver enlargement.1,2 In addition to ulcerating dermatoses, there are several other dermatologic manifestations of protein deficiency including desquamative rash, hair discoloration and thinning, skin depigmentation, impaired wound healing and dermatitis.1,2

Essential fatty acids are those that people must ingest as the body cannot synthesize them. The two essential fatty acids are linoleic acid (omega-6 fatty acid) and alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3 fatty acid). Essential fatty acid deficiency is very rare as even small amounts of dietary intake can prevent deficiency. In cases of essential fatty acid deficiency, scaly dermatitis, alopecia and intellectual disability can result.3

Understanding The Dangers Of Vitamin Deficiency
Vitamin deficiencies are frequent causes of several dermatologic disorders. Deficiencies of water-soluble vitamins, such as most B vitamins and vitamin C, may develop after weeks to months of under-nutrition. Deficiencies of fat-soluble vitamins, such as vitamins A, D, E, K and B12, can take up to a year to develop because the body stores them in relatively large amounts.

Biotin is a water-soluble B vitamin that acts as a coenzyme for essential reactions for fat and carbohydrate metabolism. Biotin deficiency is extremely rare due to several factors including a low daily biotin requirement, wide distribution of biotin in readily available foods, biotin synthesis from intestinal bacteria and homeostatic mechanisms for scavenging and recovering biotin from body waste.4,5 However, biotin deficiency can result from total parental nutrition, protein deficiency, prolonged anticonvulsant therapy, severe malnutrition, prolonged oral antibiotic therapy, consumption of raw egg whites, alcohol abuse and excessive antidiuretic medication use.6

Dermatologic signs of biotin deficiency include thinning of hair and hair loss, patchy red rash (most commonly near the mouth), seborrheic dermatitis and fungal skin and nail infections.6 Other conditions associated with biotin deficiency include hallucinations, lethargy, anorexia, depression, myalgia and paresthesias.6

Folate is required for red blood cell production and DNA synthesis. Folate deficiency is a common disorder and results from under-nutrition, alcoholism, malabsorption, increased folate demand (pregnancy and lactation) and medications such as metformin, triamterene (Dyrenium, WellSpring Pharmaceutical), oral contraceptives, anticonvulsants and methotrexate.7 Symptoms of folate deficiency include weakness, loss of appetite and weight loss.8 Severe folate deficiency results in megaloblastic anemia, which is characterized by large, abnormally nucleated erythrocytes. Symptoms of megaloblastic anemia include weakness, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, irritability, headache, heart palpitations and shortness of breath.9,10 Dermatologic manifestations of folate deficiency include painful oral mucosa, pallor and changes in skin, hair or fingernail pigmentation.9,10

A Closer Look At Specific Vitamin Deficiencies
Niacin (vitamin B3).
Niacin plays an important role in cell metabolism, namely oxidation-reduction reactions. Pellagra is a disorder that results from a chronic lack of niacin. Pellagra is rare in developed countries. It most commonly arises in areas where maize is a substantial part of the diet. Maize is a poor source of niacin because the gastrointestinal tract does not assimilate bound niacin unless it has been treated with alkali.11 Pellagra is classically described by the four D’s: diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia and death.12

Cutaneous manifestations of niacin deficiency include sunlight sensitivity, dermatitis, hair loss and red skin lesions.12 Skin lesions in pellagra tend to be symmetric and occur in sun-exposed areas and on pressure points. The appearance of skin lesions in pellagra can be variable but the symmetric distribution at pressure points and sun-exposed skin is more pathognomonic.12 Lesions can develop in a glove-like distribution on the hands (pellagrous glove) or in a boot-shaped distribution on the feet and legs (pellagrous boot).12 Additionally, sunlight can cause casal necklace, an erythematous rash in the distribution of a broad collar and butterfly-shaped lesions on the face.12

Vitamin B6. Vitamin B6 is an important cofactor in many enzymatic reactions of amino acid, lipid and glucose metabolism. It plays an important role in hemoglobin synthesis and function. While rare, dietary deficiency of vitamin B6 can result from excessive food processing, under-nutrition, malabsorption, renal disease and alcoholism. Other causes include the use of pyridoxine-inactivating drugs such as anticonvulsants, isoniazid (Laniazid), cycloserine (Seromycin), hydralazine (Apresoline, Novartis), corticosteroids or penicillamine (Cuprimine, Valeant Pharmaceuticals).13,14 Isolated vitamin B6 deficiency is uncommon and usually associated with low levels of other B vitamins.

The classic clinical syndrome for vitamin B6 deficiency is a seborrheic dermatitis-like eruption, atrophic glossitis with ulceration, angular cheilitis (scaling on the lips and cracks at the corners of the mouth), conjunctivitis, intertrigo, sideroblastic anemia (due to impaired heme synthesis) and neurologic symptoms of somnolence, confusion, depression and neuropathy.13,14

Vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 plays a key role in metabolism, nervous system function and red blood cell formation. Specifically, it has important functions in DNA synthesis and regulation, fatty acid metabolism and amino acid metabolism.16 Causes of vitamin B12 deficiency include inadequate diet (vegan diet), impaired absorption (lack of intrinsic factor, decreased GI acid secretion, small bowel disease) and drugs (antacids, metformin, nitrous oxide).16 The main clinical syndrome resulting from vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anemia, which is characterized by megaloblastic anemia.

Gastrointestinal symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency include abdominal pain and weight loss as well as neurologic symptoms including sensory and motor neuropathy, seizure, depression and dementia.17 Cutaneous manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency include pallor and brown-gray fingernail and toenail discoloration.18

Vitamin A. Vitamin A is important in the maintenance of epithelial tissues. Vitamin A is present in fish oils, liver, egg yolks, butter and vitamin A-fortified diary products. Additionally, vitamin A is a product of beta-carotene and other provitamin carotenoids that are part of green leafy and yellow vegetables, and deep and bright colored fruit. Vitamin A deficiency can result from inadequate intake, fat malabsorption and liver disorders, and can lead to numerous ophthalmologic, systemic and dermatologic conditions.

Ocular manifestations of vitamin A deficiency include xerophthalmia (dry eyes), keratomalacia (corneal necrosis/ulceration), nyctalopia (night blindness), Bitot’s spots (conjunctival lesions) and photophobia.20 Dermatologic manifestations of vitamin A deficiency include generalized xerosis and follicular hyperkeratosis.19 Xeroses resulting from vitamin A deficiency are characterized by fine wrinkles and scales.19 Follicular hyperkeratosis is characterized by red-brown follicular papules with a central keratotic spinous plug.19 These lesions are usually clustered around the bony prominences of the elbows and the knees, but may extend further up and down the extremities.19

Vitamin C. Vitamin C is a cofactor in numerous collagen synthesis reactions and plays an essential role in collagen and amino acid formation. Vitamin C is an antioxidant that supports immune function and is also essential to wound healing. Severe vitamin C deficiency results in scurvy, which is characterized by general weakness, anemia, gum disease and skin hemorrhages.21,22 In developed nations, scurvy is very rare and milder vitamin C deficiency resulting from under- or malnutrition is more common.

Systemic symptoms of vitamin C deficiency include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, myalgia and arthralgias.20,21 Dermatologic manifestations of vitamin C deficiency result from defects in connective tissue development and include rough skin, follicular hyperkeratosis, coiled hair, perifollicular hemorrhages, easy bruising, petechiae and skin tears.20,21 Deficiency also results in poor wound healing and secondary infections.20,21

When Patients Are Not Getting Enough Minerals, Iron Or Zinc
Six micronutrients (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride and phosphorus) and nine trace minerals (zinc, selenium, molybdenum, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese and fluorine) are required in the human diet. Mineral deficiency can result from inadequate consumption, inadequate digestion or absorption, and increased demand for minerals. Mineral deficiencies are more common in children due to their increased requirements secondary to growth.

Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world. Iron has numerous functions in the body including carrying oxygen to tissues, serving as cytochromes to carry electrons within cells, facilitating oxygen storage in muscle and facilitating numerous enzymatic reactions in tissues.23 Iron deficiency can range from depleted iron stores without functional impairment to iron deficiency anemia, which affects several organ systems. Iron deficiency has several dermatologic manifestations including pallor, hair loss, brittle nails, nails with a central groove and koilonychia (spoon shaped nails).18 Additional symptoms of iron deficiency anemia include anxiety, irritability, sleepiness, heart palpitations, syncope and shortness of breath.23

Zinc is a mineral that is an important component of numerous enzymes and plays an essential role in several biochemical pathways. Zinc deficiency most commonly results from inadequate dietary intake but can also result from inadequate absorption (small bowel disease) and increased loss (diuretics, hepatic insufficiency).24 Symptoms of zinc deficiency include hypogonadism, alopecia, impaired immunity, anorexia, dermatitis, night blindness, anemia, lethargy and impaired wound healing.16 Specific dermatologic manifestations of zinc deficiency include dermatitis, xerosis, seborrheic dermatitis, thin hair and impaired wound healing.16

Pertinent Insights On Specific Lower Extremity Skin And Nail Manifestations
Several skin and nail changes can be signs of an underlying nutritional deficiency. Recognition of these symptoms caused by nutritional deficiency can help aid in the diagnosis and subsequent treatment.

Pallor. Pallor results from decreased oxyhemoglobin in the skin. Severe anemia can lead to skin pallor. Anemia is associated with numerous nutritional deficiencies including iron deficiency, zinc deficiency, vitamin B12 deficiency, vitamin B6 deficiency and folate deficiency.

Impaired wound healing. Impaired wound healing can result from nutritional deficiencies, including protein, vitamin C and zinc deficiency. Protein-energy malnutrition can affect wound healing. Serum albumin and total lymphocyte count are valid tests of a patient’s protein nutrition status.25 Serum albumin levels less than 3.5 mg/dL and total lymphocyte counts less than 1,500/mm3 are associated with delayed wound healing.25 Researchers have shown that nutritional supplementation with protein dense oral supplements improves wound healing.26 Malnutrition with resulting zinc and vitamin C deficiency can also result in impaired wound healing. Zinc and vitamin C supplementation may aid in the wound healing process.27,28

Dermatitis. Dermatitis is characterized by itchy, erythematous, edematous, vesicular, weeping, flaking and crusting patches of skin. Protein, essential fatty acid, niacin (vitamin B3) and zinc deficiency can result in dermatitis.

Seborrheic dermatitis. Seborrheic dermatitis is an inflammatory skin condition that causes erythema and flaky, white to yellowish scales to form on oily sebaceous gland rich areas, such as the scalp and nasolabial fold. Seborrheic dermatitis can be a symptom of vitamin B6, biotin and zinc deficiency.

Petechiae. Petechiae are small 1-2 mm red or purple spots on the skin that result from minor hemorrhage due to broken capillary blood vessels. Petechiae can result from both niacin (vitamin B3) and vitamin C deficiency.

Follicular hyperkeratosis. Follicular hyperkeratosis is a skin condition characterized by excessive development of keratin in hair follicles, resulting in red-brown follicular papules with a central keratotic plug. The follicle openings are often closed with a white plug of sebum. Several vitamin deficiencies can result in follicular hyperkeratosis including vitamin A, B and C deficiency.19,29 Several studies have shown that supplementation with vitamins and essential fatty acids can lead to improvement and resolution of this condition.29

Xerosis. Xerosis is abnormal dryness of the skin and mucous membrane. This condition is characterized by dry, scaling, itching, and cracking skin. Both vitamin A and zinc deficiency can result in xerosis.

Nail color changes. Nail plate discoloration can result from several nutritional deficiencies. Research has shown vitamin B12 deficiency to cause brown-gray nail discoloration.18 White nails can be the result of anemia and pink or red nails may suggest malnutrition with several nutrient and vitamin deficiencies.30 Additionally, biotin deficiency can increase the risk of fungal nail infections and subsequent nail plate discoloration.31

Changes in nail shape and surface. Nutritional deficiencies can cause several changes in the shape and surface of nail plates. A central nail plate ridge can arise from iron deficiency, folic acid deficiency or protein deficiency.30 A central nail groove can result from iron deficiency.30 Beads that appear to drip down the nail like wax are associated with vitamin B deficiencies.18 Koilonychia is associated with iron deficiency and protein deficiency, especially deficiency of sulfur-containing amino acids.32 Beau’s lines are transverse depressions in the nail plate caused by temporary cessation of nail growth. Researchers have proposed severe zinc deficiency as a cause of Beau’s lines.31,33  

In Conclusion
Numerous skin and nail changes result from macronutrient and micronutrient deficiency. Recognizing these dermatologic symptoms associated with nutritional deficiencies can be an important diagnostic tool and lead to appropriate treatment.

Dr. Hoffman is in private practice in Boulder, Colo.

References

  1.     Beers MH, Berkow R. Nutritional Disorders: Malnutrition. In: The Merck Manual, 17th Edition. Merck, Whitehouse Station, NJ, 1999, pp. 28-32.
  2.     Jen M, Yan AC. Syndromes associated with nutritional deficiency and excess. Clin Dermatol. 2010;28(6):669-85.
  3.     James W, Berger T, Elston. Andrews’ Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology, 10th Edition. Saunders, Philadelphia, 2005, pp. 468-477.
  4.     Thompson J, Manore M, Sheeshka J. Nutrients involved in energy metabolism and blood health. In Bennett G, Swieg C, et al (eds.): Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Pearson, Canada, 2010, p. 353.
  5.     Velazquez A. Biotin deficiency in protein-energy malnutrition: implications for nutritional homeostasis and individuality. Nutrition. 1997;13(11-12):991-12.
  6.     Wolf B. Disorders of biotin metabolism. In Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, et al (eds.) The Metabolic & Molecular Bases Of Inherited Disease. McGraw-Hill, New York, 2001, pp. 3935-62.
  7.     National Institutes of Health. NIH Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Folate. Available at https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/folate.asp . Published Dec. 14, 2012. Accessed Dec. 4, 2014.
  8.     Antony AC. Megaloblastic anemias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI (eds.): Cecil Medicine, 24th Edition, Chapter 167. Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia, 2011.
  9.     Bailey LB, Gregory JF. Folate. In: Bowman BA, Russell RM (eds.): Present Knowledge In Nutrition, Ninth Edition. ILSI Press, Washington, DC, 2006, pp. 278-301.
  10.     Carmel R. Folic Acid. In: Shils M, Shike M, Ross A, Caballero B, Cousins R (eds.): Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2005, pp. 470-481.
  11.     Pitche P. Pellagra. Sante. 2005; 15(3):205-8.
  12.     Hegyi J, Schwartz RA, Hegyi V. Pellagra: Dermatitis, dementia, and diarrhea. Int J Dermat. 2004; 43(1):1a-5.
  13.     Institute of Medicine (US) Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes and its Panel on Folate, Other B Vitamins, and Choline. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1998. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK114310/ .
  14.     McCormick D. Vitamin B6. In: Bowman B, Russell R (eds.): Present Knowledge in Nutrition, Ninth Edition. International Life Sciences Institute, Washington, DC, 2006, pp. 269-277.
  15.     Mackey AD, Davis SR, Gregory JF, 3rd. Vitamin B6. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, et al (eds.): Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 10th Edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2006, pp. 452-461.
  16.     Yamada K. Cobalt: its role in health and disease. In Sigel A, Sigel H, Sigel RKO (eds.): Interrelations between Essential Metal Ions and Human Diseases. Metal Ions in Life Sciences, Chapter 13. Springer, Philadelphia, 2013, pp. 295-320.
  17.     Sethi NK, Robilotti E, Sadan Y. Neurological manifestations of vitamin B-12 deficiency. J Nutrition Wellness. 2005; 2(1):32-38.
  18.     Williams ME. Examining the fingernails when evaluating presenting symptoms in elderly patients: observing the nail shape and surface. Medscape Family Medicine. Available at https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/712251_2 . Published Nov. 3, 2009. Accessed Dec. 4, 2014.
  19.     Schwartz RA, Centurion SA, Gascon P, et al. Dermatologic manifestations of vitamin A deficiency clinical presentation. Medscape. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1104441-overview . Published June 27, 2014. Accessed Dec. 4, 2014.
  20.     Roncone DP. Xerophthalmia secondary to alcohol-induced malnutrition. Optometry. 2006;77(3):124-33.
  21.     Weinstein M, Babyn P, Zlotkin S. An orange a day keeps the doctor away: scurvy in the year 2000. Pediatrics. 2001;108(3):E55.
  22.     Wang AH, Still C. Old world meets modern: a case report of scurvy. Nutr Clin Pract. 2007;22(4):445-8.
  23.     Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Iron deficiency — United States, 1999–2000. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2002; 51(40):897-99.
  24.     Yamada T, Alpers DH, et al. Textbook of Gastroenterology, Fifth Edition. Blackwell Pub, Hoboken, NJ, 2009, pp. 495, 498, 499, 1274, 2526.
  25.     Dickhaut SC, DeLee JC, Page CP. Nutritional status: importance in predicting wound-healing after amputation. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1984;66(1):71-75.
  26.     Collins CE, Kershaw J, Brockington B. Effect of nutritional supplements on wound healing in home-nursed elderly: A randomized trial. Nutrition. 2005;21(2):147-155.
  27.     Lansdown ABG, Mirastschijski U, Stubbs N, et al. Zinc in wound healing: Theoretical, experimental, and clinical aspects. Wound Repair Regen. 2007;15(1):2–16.
  28.     Desneves KJ, Todorovic BE, Cassar A, Crowe TC. Treatment with supplementary arginine, vitamin C and zinc in patients with pressure ulcers: a randomized control trial. Clinical Nutrition. 2005;24(6),979-987.
  29.     Nadiger, HA. Role of vitamin E in the aetiology of phrynoderma (follicular hyperkeratosis) and its interrelationship with B-complex vitamins. Br J Nutrition. 1980; 44(3):211:80
  30.     Williams ME. The hands and wrists. In: Geriatric Physical Diagnosis: A Guide to Observation and Assessment, Chapter 5. McFarland & Co., Jefferson, NC, 2008, pp. 48-66.
  31.     Singh G. Nail changes and disorders in elderly. Sacchidanand S, Savitha AS (eds.): Nail and Its Disorders, Chapter 6. Jaypee Brothers Medical, London, 2013, pp. 221-237.
  32.     Fawcett RS, Lindford S, Stulberg DL. Nail abnormalities: clues to systemic disease. Am Fam Physician. 2004;69(6):1417-1424.
  33.     Seshadri D, De D. Nails in nutritional deficiencies. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2012;78(3):237-41.

 

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How to Use Vitamin C to Get the Best Skin You'll Ever Have

We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. Here’s our process.

When it comes to the vitamin that offers up the greatest body benefits, the one named “C” arguably takes the crown. And it’s not just your insides that are BFFs with vitamin C: this nutrient can also help transform the appearance of your skin.

“Vitamin C products are packed with antioxidants that are known for providing a brightening and “glowy” effect on our skin,” says dermatologist Dr. Kathy Taghipour. “It naturally improves the appearance of skin by fighting signs of aging and UV exposure, along with hyperpigmentation and dark patches.”

So hell yeah, add this to your beauty regimen — but before you buy the first thing you see, learn about what exactly makes vitamin C (aka L-ascorbic acid) so powerful so you can not only convince all your friends but also know which products work best for your skin.

When it comes to your skin, vitamin c has a truly noteworthy resume

1. Fights lines and wrinkles

When it comes to fine lines, wrinkles, and other signs of your skin’s wear and tear, vitamin C is a handy tool to have in your arsenal. Research shows this nutrient helps protect against damage and aids in skin regeneration, by neutralizing free radicals.

2. Revitalizes sun-damaged skin

Prolonged sun exposure does a number on the skin — flakiness, discolored patches (sunspots), rough areas, rosacea, etc. But topically applying a daily vitamin C dose may guard your skin from taking too much damage.

One study found people with mild to moderately photo-damaged skin experienced a significant improvement in skin appearance, including fine lines, roughness, and skin tone, after using a topical vitamin C treatment for 3 months.

3. Evens out tone and minimize redness

Blotchy, uneven skin can result from a number of factors, from sun exposure to hormones to medical conditions.

The good news is, vitamin C has proven itself a hearty warrior in the fight against redness, as it helps mend the damaged capillaries that cause this discoloration and strengthen them for the future.

4. Hydrates thirsty skin

With the average adult carrying 2 square metres of skin on their body, this organ is certainly thirsty — and we’re not talking about looking for attention.

Comprising 64 percent water, your skin needs to be kept hydrated, and your new chum vitamin C is here to bring the juice (or water, we should say). It also helps your skin retain water, preventing it from becoming too dry or oily.

5. Improves elasticity

Topical vitamin C has been shown to encourage collagen production, a naturally occurring protein in our body that helps give skin that tight, plump look.

Since the body naturally makes less and less collagen as it ages, using an ingredient like vitamin C can help slow down skin aging.

6. Helps reduce inflammation

If your skin is red, irritated and showing signs of a rash, there’s a good chance that an underlying immune response, infection, or allergic reaction is behind it.

While many causes require medication to ease their effects, studies show topical vitamin C to be effective in relieving signs associated with inflammatory skin conditions such as dermatitis, acne, and psoriasis.

7. Eases hyperpigmentation

Hyperpigmentation refers to dark patches of skin, caused when the body produces too much melanin (the pigment that gives your skin its color).

While generally not harmful, hyperpigmentation can prove distracting — but topically applying vitamin C has been shown to decrease its signs, as it inhibits production of tyrosinase, an enzyme that contributes to melanin production.

8. Calms down sunburn

While we’re certainly not suggesting vitamin C as an alternative to ditching the SPF, if you do have a sunburn mishap, it can help steer you away from Rudolph territory.

This clever nutrient helps speed up cell turnover, meaning sunburned skin is rejuvenated and heals faster.

9. Aids healing

As if it didn’t already boast enough superpowers, vitamin C has been proven beneficial in helping repair wounds.

This is thought to be as a result of its ability to increase the movement and number of fibroblasts in our skin — the connective tissue cells that are key to the healing process.

How to incorporate vit c into your routine

While this antioxidant is in many of our everyday foods (kale, broccoli, strawberries, and oranges, especially), you have to apply it topically for your skin to enjoy its full effects.

The good news is, whether your skin is dry, oily or some weird combo you’re still trying to figure out, vitamin C doesn’t play favorites — as long as you play nice and apply it correctly.

“Vitamin C is best implemented into your routine with a serum, as this allows the L-ascorbic acid to remain stable and more effective,” Dr. Taghipour explains. “It will also absorb into the skin better, as serum is a lighter formulation than moisturizer.”

In terms of when to use it, vitamin C should become a staple in your morning routine, as this allows it to do its work in protecting skin from free radicals during the day.

“You should cleanse and tone, then apply your vitamin C serum and follow with a moisturizer,” says Dr. Taghipour.

Don’t forget to apply sunscreen after moisturizing, in order for the two products to work well together to combat UV exposure, she adds.

Quick take: Apply a vitamin C serum once or twice a day, after toner and before your moisturizer. Always wear SPF with products that contain vitamin C.

How to shop for a vit c product

Once you start Googling you’ll realize just how many vitamin C products are out there. Keep these tips in mind.

1. Look for L-ascorbic acid

Lots of products claim to contain vitamin C, but for this antioxidant to be truly effective, you need to look for L-ascorbic acid in the ingredient list — as this is its most stable form.

2. Concentration is key

Dr. Taghipour recommends starting with a 10 percent concentration to see how it suits your skin. “You can then move to a product containing a higher concentration of 15 to 20 percent if you feel this is required and your skin can tolerate it,” she says.

Make sure the product has at least 10 percent, she adds, as any less than this won’t be effective.

3. The container shouldn’t let air or light in

Vitamin C is super-sensitive to light, so the sun’s rays will break it down faster if it’s in clear packaging. As such, you also want to keep it stashed away in a cool, dark space — such as the fridge — as heat exposure reduces its potency too.

Although vitamin C serums are often a yellowish color, if the tint turns darker or brownish, that’s a sign it’s turned and should be tossed.

4. It contains complementary ingredients

Your vitamin C product will be the most effective if it contains the following complementary ingredients:

Product recommendations

With so many products on the market, it can be hard to know where to begin. Here, Dr. Taghipour and our editors share a few of their favorites — with something for all budgets.

Feeling thrifty: under $30

The Ordinary: Vitamin C Suspension 23% + HA Spheres 2%

Contains 23% vitamin C.
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Suitable for all skin types, this packs a mighty L-ascorbic punch at a wallet-friendly price.

Mad Hippie Vitamin C Serum

Contains 10% vitamin C.
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This formula contains vitamin C besties ferulic and hyaluronic acids, and it won’t break the bank.

Upping your game: under $50

Eucerin: Hyaluron-filler Vitamin C booster

Contains 10% vitamin C.
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Suitable for all skin types, this also contains hyaluronic acid, to help smooth and plump skin further.

La Roche Posay: 10% Pure Vitamin C Serum

Contains 10% vitamin C.
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Suitable for all skin types, it also contains salicylic acid — known for its ability to purify and exfoliate.

Pay-day treats: under $70

Perricone MD: Vitamin C Ester Brightening Serum

Contains 15% vitamin C.
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Suitable for all skin types, this serum also contains squalene and rosemary leaf extract for extra hydration.

SkinCeuticals: Serum 10 AOX+

Contains 10% vitamin C.
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Suitable for normal and dry skin, it comprises ferulic acid to increase the vitamin C’s stability.

Start saving: $75+

Clinique: Fresh Pressed Daily Booster with Pure Vitamin C

Contains 10% vitamin C.
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Suitable for all skin types, this includes squalane — another antioxidant that offers similar benefits to vitamin C.

Drunk Elephant: C-Firma Day Serum

Contains 15% vitamin C.
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Suitable for all skin types, its sodium hyaluronate content also helps reduce the appearance of fine lines.

Chantelle Pattemore is a writer and editor based in London, UK. She focuses on lifestyle, travel, food, health, and fitness.

Источник: https://greatist.com/health/vitamin-c-for-skin

Superalloy

Alloy with higher durability than normal metals

Nickel superalloy jet engine (RB199) turbine blade

A superalloy, or high-performance alloy, is an alloy with the ability to operate at a high fraction of its melting point.[1] Several key characteristics of a superalloy are excellent mechanical strength, resistance to thermal creep deformation, good surface stability, and resistance to corrosion or oxidation.

The crystal structure is typically face-centered cubic (FCC) austenitic. Examples of such alloys are Hastelloy, Inconel, Waspaloy, Rene alloys, Incoloy, MP98T, TMS alloys, and CMSX single crystal alloys.

Superalloy development has relied heavily on both chemical and process innovations. Superalloys develop high temperature strength through solid solution strengthening and precipitation strengthening from secondary phase precipitates such as gamma prime and carbides. Oxidation or corrosion resistance is provided by elements such as aluminium and chromium. Superalloys are often cast as a single crystal—while grain boundaries may provide strength at low temperatures, they decrease creep resistance.

The primary application for such alloys is in aerospace and marine turbine engines. Creep is typically the lifetime-limiting factor in gas turbine blades.[2]

Superalloys are the materials which have made much of very-high-temperature engineering technology possible.[1]

Chemical development[edit]

Because these alloys are intended for high temperature applications (i.e. holding their shape at temperatures near their melting point) their creep and oxidation resistance are of primary importance. Nickel (Ni)-based superalloys have emerged as the material of choice for these applications because of their unique γ' precipitates.[1][3][page needed] The properties of these Ni-based superalloys can be tailored to a certain extent through the addition of many other elements, both common and exotic, including not only metals, but also metalloids and nonmetals; chromium, iron, cobalt, molybdenum, tungsten, tantalum, aluminium, titanium, zirconium, niobium, rhenium, yttrium, vanadium, carbon, boron or hafnium are some examples of the alloying additions used. Each of these additions has been chosen to serve a particular purpose in optimizing the properties for high temperature application.

Creep resistance is dependent, in part, on slowing the speed of dislocation motion within a crystal structure. In modern Ni-based superalloys, the γ’-Ni3(Al,Ti) phase present acts as a barrier to dislocation motion. For this reason, this γ’ intermetallic phase, when present in high volume fractions, drastically increases the strength of these alloys due to its ordered nature and high coherency with the γ matrix. The chemical additions of aluminum and titanium promote the creation of the γ’ phase. The γ’ phase size can be precisely controlled by careful precipitation strengthening heat treatments. Many superalloys are produced using a two-phase heat treatment that creates a dispersion of cuboidal γ’ particles known as the primary phase, with a fine dispersion between these known as secondary γ’. In order to improve the oxidation resistance of these alloys, Al, Cr, B, and Y are added. The Al and Cr form oxide layers that passivate the surface and protect the superalloy from further oxidation while B and Y are used to improve the adhesion of this oxide scale to the substrate.[4] Cr, Fe, Co, Mo and Re all preferentially partition to the γ matrix while Al, Ti, Nb, Ta, and V preferentially partition to the γ’ precipitates and solid solution strengthen the matrix and precipitates respectively. In addition to solid solution strengthening, if grain boundaries are present, certain elements are chosen for grain boundary strengthening. B and Zr tend to segregate to the grain boundaries which reduces the grain boundary energy and results in better grain boundary cohesion and ductility.[5] Another form of grain boundary strengthening is achieved through the addition of C and a carbide former, such as Cr, Mo, W, Nb, Ta, Ti, or Hf, which drives precipitation of carbides at grain boundaries and thereby reduces grain boundary sliding.

Element Composition range
(weight %)
Purpose
Ni, Fe, Co 50-70% These elements form the base matrix γ phase of the superalloy. Ni is necessary because it also forms γ' (Ni3Al).
Fe and Co have higher melting points than Ni and offer solid solution strengthening. Fe is also much cheaper than Ni or Co.
Cr 5-20% Cr is necessary for oxidation and corrosion resistance; it forms a protective oxide Cr2O3.
Al 0.5-6% Al is the main γ' former. It also forms a protective oxide Al2O3, which provides oxidation resistance at higher temperature than Cr2O3.
Ti 1-4% Ti forms γ'.
C 0.05-0.2% MC and M23C6 (M ⁠= ⁠metal) carbides are the strengthening phase in the absence of γ'.
B,Zr 0-0.1% Boron and zirconium provide strength to grain boundaries. This is not essential in single-crystal turbine blades, because there are no grain boundaries.
Nb 0-5% Nb can form γ'', a strengthening phase at lower (below 700 °C) temperatures.
Re, W, Hf, Mo, Ta 1-10% Refractory metals, added in small amounts for solid solution strengthening (and carbide formation). They are heavy, but have extremely high melting points.

Active research[edit]

While Ni-based superalloys are excellent high temperature materials and have proven very useful, Co-based superalloys potentially possess superior hot corrosion, oxidation, and wear resistance as compared to Ni-based superalloys. For this reason, efforts have also been put into developing Co-based superalloys over the past several years. Despite that, traditional Co-based superalloys have not found widespread usage because they have a lower strength at high temperature than Ni-based superalloys.[8] The main reason for this is that—until recently—they appeared to lack the γ’ precipitation strengthening that is so important in the high temperature strength of Ni-based superalloys. A 2006 report on metastable γ’-Co3(Al,W) intermetallic compound with the L12 structure suggests Co-based alloys as alternative to traditional Ni-based superalloys. However this class of alloys was reported in a PhD thesis by C. S. Lee in 1971.[9] The two-phase microstructure consists of cuboidal γ’ precipitates embedded in a continuous γ matrix and is therefore morphologically identical to the microstructure observed in Ni-based superalloys. Like in the Ni-based system, there is a high degree of coherency between the two phases, which is one of the main factors resulting in the superior strength at high temperatures.

This provides a pathway for the development of a new class of load-bearing Co-based superalloys for application in severe environments.[10] In these alloys, W is the crucial addition for forming the γ’ intermetallic compound; this makes them much denser (>9.6 g/cm3) compared to Ni-based superalloys. Recently a new class of γ - γ’ cobalt-based superalloys have been developed that are W-free and have much lower density comparable to nickel-based superalloys.[11][12][13][14] In addition to the fact that many of the properties of these new Co-based superalloys could be better than those of the more traditional Ni-based ones, Co also has a higher melting temperature than Ni. Therefore, if the high temperature strength could be improved, the development of novel Co-based superalloys could allow for an increase in jet engine operation temperature resulting in an increased efficiency.

Phase formation[edit]

Adding new elements is usually good because of solid solution strengthening, but engineers need to be careful about which phases precipitate. Precipitates can be classified as geometrically close-packed (GCP), topologically close-packed (TCP), or carbides. GCP phases are usually good for mechanical properties, but TCP phases are often deleterious. Because TCP phases are not truly close packed, they have few slip systems and are very brittle. They are additionally bad because they "scavenge" elements away from GCP phases. Many elements that are good for forming γ' or have great solid solution strengthening may precipitate TCPs. Engineers need to find the balance that promotes GCPs while avoiding TCPs.

An area of the alloy with TCP phase formation will be weak because:[15][16]

  • the TCP phase has inherently poor mechanical properties
  • the TCP phase is incoherent with the γ matrix
  • the TCP phase is surrounded by a "depletion zone" where there is no γ'
  • the TCP phase usually forms sharp plate dvdfab passkey crack download - Crack Key For U needle-like morphologies which easily nucleate cracks

The main GCP phase is γ'. Almost all superalloys are Ni-based because of this phase. γ' is an ordered L12 (pronounced L-one-two), which means it has a chromium and weight loss - Crack Key For U atom on the face of the unit cell, and a certain atom on the corners of the unit cell. For Ni-based superalloys, that usually means Ni on the faces and Ti or Al on the corners.

Another "good" GCP phase is γ''. It is also coherent with γ, but it dissolves at high temperatures.

Phase Classification Structure Composition(s) Appearance Effect
γ matrix disordered FCC Ni, Co, Fe and other elements in solid solution The background for other precipitates The matrix phase, provides ductility and a structure for precipitates
γ' GCP L12 (ordered FCC) Ni3(Al,Ti) cubes, rounded cubes, spheres, or platelets (depending on lattice mismatch) The main strengthening phase. γ' is coherent with γ, which allows for ductility.
Carbide Carbide FCC mC, m23C6, and m6C (m ⁠= ⁠metal) string-like clumps, like strings of pearls There are many carbides, but they all provide dispersion strengthening and grain boundary stabilization.
γ'' GCP D022 (ordered BCT) Ni3Nb very small disks This precipitate is coherent with γ'. It is the main strengthening phase in IN-718, but γ'' dissolves at high temperatures.
η GCP D024 (ordered HCP) Ni3Ti may form cellular or Widmanstätten patterns The phase is not the worst, but it is not as good as γ'. It can be useful in controlling grain boundaries.
δ not close-packed orthorhombic Ni3Nb acicular (needle-like) The main issue with this phase is that it's not coherent with γ, but it is not inherently weak. It typically forms from decomposing γ'', but sometimes it's intentionally added in small amounts for grain boundary refinement.
σ TCP tetrahedral FeCr, FeCrMo, CrCo elongaged globules This TCP is usually considered to have the worst mechanical properties.[17] It is never desirable for mechanical properties.
μ TCP hexagonal Fe2Nb, Co2Ti, Fe2Ti globules or platelets This phase has typical TCP issues. It is never desirable for mechanical properties.
Laves TCP rhombohedral (Fe,Co)7(Mo,W)6coarse Widmanstätten platelets This phase has typical TCP issues. It is never desirable for mechanical properties.

Families of superalloys[edit]

History and development of Ni-based superalloys[edit]

The United States became interested in gas turbine development around 1905.[1] From 1910-1915, austenitic ( γ phase) stainless steels were developed for the high temperatures in gas turbines. By 1929, 80Ni-20Cr alloy was the norm, with small additions of Ti and Al. Although early metallurgists did not know it yet, they were forming small γ' precipitates in Ni-based superalloys. These alloys quickly surpassed Fe- and Co-based superalloys, which were strengthened by carbides and solid solution strengthening.

Although Cr was great for protecting the alloys from oxidation and corrosion up to 700 °C, metallurgists began decreasing Cr in favor of Al, which had oxidation resistance at much higher temperatures. The lack of Cr caused issues with hot corrosion, so coatings needed to be developed.

Around 1950, vacuum melting became commercialized, which allowed metallurgists to create higher purity alloys with more precise composition.

In the 60s and 70s, metallurgists changed focus from alloy chemistry to alloy processing. Directional solidification was developed to allow columnar or even single-crystal turbine blades. Oxide dispersion strengthening could obtain very fine grains and superplasticity.

Ni-based superalloy phases[edit]

  • Gamma (γ): This phase composes the matrix of Ni-based superalloy. It is a solid solution fcc austenitic phase of the alloying elements.[17][18] Alloying elements found in most commercial Ni-based alloys are, C, Cr, Mo, W, Nb, Fe, Ti, Al, V, and Ta. During the formation of these materials, as the Ni-alloys are cooled from the melt, carbides begin to precipitate, at even lower temperatures γ' phase precipitates.[18][19]
  • Gamma prime (γ'): This phase constitutes the precipitate used to strengthen the alloy. It is an intermetallic phase based on Ni3(Ti,Al) which have an ordered FCC L12 structure.[17] The γ' phase is coherent with the matrix of the superalloy having a lattice parameter that varies by around 0.5%. Ni3(Ti,Al) are ordered systems with Ni atoms at the cube faces and either Al or Ti atoms at the cube edges. As particles of γ' precipitates aggregate, they decrease their energy states by aligning along the <100> directions forming cuboidal structures.[18] This phase has a window of instability between 600 °C and 850 °C, inside of which γ' will transform into the HCP η phase. For applications at temperatures below 650 °C, the γ" phase can be utilized for strengthening.[20]
Crystal structure for γ" (Ni3Nb) (Body Centered Tetragonal)
  • Gamma double prime (γ"): This phase typically possesses the composition of Ni3Nb or Ni3V and is used to strengthen Ni-based superalloys at lower temperatures (<650 °C) relative to γ'. The crystal structure of γ" is body-centered tetragonal (BCT), and the phase precipitates as 60 nm by 10 nm discs with the (001) planes in γ" parallel to the {001} family in γ. These anisotropic discs form as a result of lattice mismatch between the BCT precipitate and the FCC matrix. This lattice mismatch leads to high coherency strains which, together with order hardening, comprise the primary strengthening mechanisms. The γ" phase is unstable above approximately 650 °C.[20]
  • Carbide phases: Carbide formation is usually considered deleterious although in Ni-based superalloys they are used to stabilize the structure of the material against deformation at high temperatures. Carbides form at the grain boundaries inhibiting grain boundary motion.[17][18]
  • Topologically close-packed (TCP) phases: The term "TCP phase" refers to any member of a family of phases (including the σ phase, the χ phase, the μ phase, and the Laves phase) which are not atomically close-packed but possess some close-packed planes with HCP stacking. TCP phases are characterized by their tendency to be highly brittle and deplete the γ matrix of strengthening, solid solution refractory elements (including Cr, Co, W, and Mo). These phases form as a result of kinetics after long periods of time (thousands of hours) at high temperatures (>750 °C).[20]

Nickel-based superalloy MAR-M 247 had very good fatigue performance at temperatures of 800 and 900 °C.[21]

History and development of Co-based superalloys[edit]

Historically, Co-based superalloys have depended on carbide precipitation and solid solution strengthening for mechanical properties. While these strengthening mechanisms are inferior to gamma prime (γ') precipitation strengthening,[1] cobalt has a higher melting point than currently ubiquitous nickel-based superalloys and has superior hot corrosion resistance and thermal fatigue. As a result, carbide-strengthened Co-based superalloys are used in lower stress, higher temperature applications such as stationary vanes in gas turbines.[22]

However, recent research has shown that cobalt can exhibit the γ' phase. Actually, the first reported existence of γ' occurred in a 1971 PhD dissertation,[9] but was never published. The γ/γ' microstructure was rediscovered and first published in 2006 by Sato et al.[8] That γ' phase was Co3(Al, W). It was furthermore found that Mo, Ti, Nb, V, and Ta partition to the γ' phase, while Fe, Mn, and Cr partition to the matrix γ.

The next family of Co-based superalloys was discovered in 2015 by Makineni et al. This family has a similar γ/γ' microstructure, but is tungsten-free and has a γ' phase of Co3(Al,Mo,Nb).[11] Since tungsten is a very heavy element, the elimination of tungsten makes Co-based alloys increasingly viable in turbines for aircraft, where low density is especially important.

The most recently discovered family of superalloys was computationally predicted in a high throughput study by Nyshadham et al.[23] in 2017, and demonstrated in the lab by Reyes Tirado et al. in 2018.[14] This γ' phase is again tungsten free and has the composition Co3(Nb,V) and Co3(Ta,V).

Co-based superalloy phases[edit]

  • Gamma (γ): Similar to Ni-based superalloys, this is the phase of the superalloy’s matrix. While not used commercially to the extent of Ni-based superalloys, alloying elements found in research Co-based alloys are C, Cr, W, Ni, Ti, Al, Ir, and Chromium and weight loss - Crack Key For U Chromium is also used in Cobalt-based superalloys (occasionally up to 20 wt.%) as it provides oxidation and corrosion resistance, critical for material use in gas turbines.[25]
  • Gamma Prime (γ'): Just as in Ni-based super alloys, this phase constitutes the precipitate used to strengthen the alloy. In this case, it is usually close packed with a L12 structure of Co3Ti or fcc Co3Ta, though both W and Al have been found to integrate into these cuboidal precipitates quite well. The elements Ta, Nb, and Ti integrate into the γ’ phase and are quite effective at stabilizing it at high temperatures. This stabilization is quite important as the lack of stability is one of the key factors that makes Co-based superalloys weaker than their Ni-base cousins at elevated temperatures.[8][26]
  • Carbide Phases: As is common with carbide formation, its appearance in Co-based superalloys does provide precipitation hardening, but decreases low-temperature ductility.[24]
  • Topologically Close-Packed (TCP) phases may also appear in some developmental Co-based superalloys, but a major point of engineering these alloys is avoiding TCPs.

Fe-based superalloy phases[edit]

The use of steels in superalloy applications is of interest because certain steel alloys have showed creep and oxidation resistance similar to that of Ni-based superalloys, while chromium and weight loss - Crack Key For U far less expensive to produce.

Gamma (γ): Like the phases found in Ni-based superalloys, Fe-based alloys feature a matrix phase of austenite iron (FCC). Alloying elements that are commonly found in these stainless steel alloys include: Al, B, C, Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, Nb, Si, Ti, W, and Y.[27] While Al is introduced for its oxidation benefits, Al additions must be kept at low weight fractions (wt.%) because Al stabilizes a ferritic (BCC) primary phase matrix, which is an undesirable phase in superalloy microstructures, as it is inferior to the high microsoft office crack 2016 - Free Activators strength exhibited by an austenitic (FCC) primary phase matrix.[28]

Gamma-prime (γ’): This phase is introduced as precipitates to strengthen the alloy. Like in Ni-based alloys, γ’-Ni3Al precipitates can be introduced with the proper balance of Al, Ni, Nb, and Ti additions.

Microstructure of Fe-based superalloys[edit]

Two major types of austenitic stainless steels exist and are characterized by the oxide layer that forms at the surface of the chromium and weight loss - Crack Key For U chromia-forming or alumina-forming stainless steel. Chromia-forming stainless steel is the most common type of stainless steel produced. However, chromia-forming steels do not exhibit high creep resistance at high operating temperatures, especially in environments with water vapor, when compared to Ni-based superalloys. Exposure to water vapor at high operating temperatures can result in an increase in internal oxidation in chromia-forming alloys and rapid formation of volatile Cr (oxy)hydroxides, both of which can reduce the durability and lifetime of the alloy.[28]

Alumina-forming austenitic stainless steels feature a single-phase matrix of austenite iron (FCC) with an alumina oxide at the surface of the steel. Alumina is more thermodynamically stable in oxygen than chromia. More commonly, however, precipitate phases are introduced to increase strength and creep resistance. In alumina-forming steels, NiAl precipitates are introduced to act as Al reservoirs to maintain the protective alumina layer. In addition, Nb and Cr additions help form and stabilize alumina by increasing precipitate volume fractions of NiAl.[28]

Research endeavors for the development of alumina-forming, Fe-base superalloys have shown at least 5 grades of alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) alloys, with different operating temperatures at oxidation in air + 10% water vapor:[29]

  • AFA Grade: (50-60)Fe-(20-25)Ni-(14-15)Cr-(2.5-3.5)Al-(1-3)Nb wt.% base
    • 750-800 °C operating temperatures at oxidation in air + 10% water vapor
  • Low Nickel AFA Grade: 63Fe-12Ni-14Cr-2.5Al-0.6Nb-5Mn3Cu wt.% base
    • 650 °C operating temperatures at oxidation in air + 10% water vapor
  • High Performance AFA Grade: (45-55)Fe-(25-30)Ni-(14-15)Cr(3.5-4.5)Al-(1-3)Nb-(0.02-0.1)Hf/Y wt.% base
    • 850-900 °C operating temperatures at oxidation in air + 10% water vapor
  • Cast AFA Grade: (35-50)Fe-(25-35)Ni-14Cr-(3.5-4)Al-1Nb wt.% base
    • 750-1100 °C operating temperatures at oxidation in air + 10% water vapor, depending upon Ni wt.%
  • AFA superalloy (40-50)Fe-(30-35)Ni-(14-19)Cr-(2.5-3.5)Al-3Nb
    • 750-850 °C operating temperatures at oxidation in air + 10% water vapor

Operating temperatures with oxidation in air and no water vapor are expected to be higher. In addition, an AFA superalloy grade was shown to exhibit a creep strength approaching that of the nickel-based alloy UNS N06617.

Microstructure of superalloys[edit]

In pure Ni3Al phase atoms of aluminium are placed at the vertices of the cubic cell and form the sublattice A. Atoms of nickel are located at centers of the faces and form the sublattice B. The phase is not strictly stoichiometric. There may exist an excess of vacancies in one of the sublattices, which leads to deviations from stoichiometry. Sublattices A and B of the γ'-phase can solute a considerable proportion of other elements. The alloying elements are dissolved in the γ-phase as well. The γ'-phase hardens the alloy through an unusual mechanism called the yield strength anomaly. Dislocations dissociate in the γ'-phase, leading to the formation of an anti-phase boundary. At elevated temperature, the free energy associated with the anti-phase boundary (APB) is considerably reduced if it lies on a particular plane, which by coincidence is not a permitted slip plane. One set of partial dislocations bounding the APB cross-slips so that the APB lies on the low-energy plane, and, since this low-energy plane is not a permitted slip plane, the dissociated dislocation is now effectively locked. By this mechanism, the yield strength of γ'-phase Ni3Al actually increases with temperature up to about 1000 °C, giving superalloys their currently unrivaled high-temperature strength.

Initial material selection for blade applications in gas turbine engines included alloys like the Nimonic series alloys in the 1940s.[3][page needed] The early Nimonic series incorporated γ' Ni3(Al,Ti) precipitates in a γ matrix, as well as various metal-carbon carbides (e.g. Cr23C6) at the grain boundaries[30] for additional grain boundary strength. Turbine blade components were forged until vacuum inductioncasting technologies were introduced in the 1950s.[3][page needed] This process significantly improved cleanliness, reduced defects, and increased the strength and temperature capability of the material.

Modern superalloys were developed in the 1980s. The first generation superalloys incorporated increased aluminium, titanium, tantalum, and niobium content in order to increase the γ' volume fraction in these alloys. Examples of first generation superalloys include: PWA1480, René N4 and SRR99. Additionally, the volume fraction of the γ' precipitates increased to about 50–70% with the advent of single crystal, or monocrystal, solidification techniques (see Bridgman technique) for superalloys that enable grain boundaries to be entirely eliminated from a casting. Because the material contained no grain boundaries, carbides were unnecessary as grain boundary strengthers and were thus eliminated.[3][page needed]

The second and third generation superalloys introduced about 3 and 6 weight per cent Rhenium, for increased temperature capability. Re is a slow diffuser and typically partitions to the γ matrix, decreasing the rate of diffusion (and thereby high temperature creep) and improving high temperature performance and increasing service temperatures by 30 °C and 60 °C in second and third generation superalloys, respectively.[31] Re has also been shown to promote the formation of rafts of the γ' phase (as opposed to cuboidal precipitates). The presence of rafts can decrease creep rate in the power-law regime (controlled by dislocation climb), but can also potentially increase the creep rate if the dominant mechanism is particle shearing. Furthermore, Re tends to promote the formation of brittle TCP phases, which has led to the strategy of reducing Co, W, Mo, and particularly Cr. Younger generations of Ni-based superalloys have significantly reduced Cr content for this reason, however with the reduction in Cr comes a reduction in oxidation resistance. Advanced coating techniques are now used to offset the loss of oxidation resistance accompanying the decreased Cr contents.[20][32] Examples of second generation superalloys include PWA1484, CMSX-4 and René N5. Third generation alloys include CMSX-10, and René N6. Fourth, Fifth, and even Sixth generation superalloys have been developed which incorporate ruthenium additions, making them more expensive still than the prior generation's Re-containing alloys. The effect of Ru on the promotion of TCP phases is not well-determined. Early reports determined that Ru decreased the supersaturation of Re in the matrix and thereby diminished the susceptibility to TCP phase formation.[33] More recent studies have noted the opposite effect. Chen, et al., found that in two alloys differing significantly only in Ru content (USTB-F3 and USTB-F6) that the addition of Ru increased both the partitioning ratio as well as the supersaturation in the γ matrix of Cr and Re, and thereby promoted the formation of TCP phases.[34]

The current trend is to avoid very expensive and very heavy elements. An example is Eglin steel, a budget material with compromised temperature range and chemical resistance. It does not contain rhenium or ruthenium and its nickel content is limited. To reduce fabrication costs, it was chemically designed to melt in a ladle (though with improved properties in a vacuum crucible). Also, conventional welding and casting is possible before heat-treatment. The original purpose was to produce high-performance, inexpensive bomb casings, but the material has proven widely applicable to structural applications, including armor.

Single-crystal superalloys[edit]

Single-crystal superalloys (SX or SC superalloys) are formed as a single crystal using a modified version of the directional solidification technique, so there are no grain boundaries in the material. The mechanical properties of most other alloys depend on the presence of grain boundaries, but at high temperatures, they would participate in creep and must be replaced by other mechanisms. In many such alloys, islands of an ordered intermetallic phase sit in a matrix of disordered phase, all with the same crystalline lattice. This approximates the dislocation-pinning behavior of grain boundaries, without introducing any amorphous solid into the structure.

Single crystal (SX) superalloys have wide application in the high-pressure turbine section of aero and industrial gas turbine engines due to the unique combination of properties and performance. Since introduction of single crystal casting technology, SX alloy development has focused on increased temperature capability, and major improvements in alloy performance have been associated with the introduction of new alloying elements, including rhenium (Re) and ruthenium (Ru).[35]

With increasing turbine entry temperature, it is important to gain a fundamental understanding of the physical phenomena occurring during creep deformation of single crystal superalloys under such extreme condition (i.e. high temperature and high stress). The creep deformation behavior of superalloy single crystal is strongly temperature, stress, orientation and alloy dependent. For a single-crystal superalloy, there are 3 different modes of creep deformation under regimes of different temperature and stress: Rafting, Tertiary and Primary.[36][page needed] At low temperature (~750 °C), SX alloys exhibits mostly primary creep behavior. Matan et al. concluded that the extent of primary creep deformation depends strongly on the angle between the tensile axis and the <001>/<011> symmetry boundary.[37] At temperature above 850 °C, tertiary creep dominates and promotes strain softening behavior.[3][page needed] When temperature exceeds 1000 °C, the rafting effect is prevalent where cubic particles transform into flat shapes under tensile stress[38] The rafts would also form perpendicular to the tensile axis, since γ phase was transported out of the vertical channels and into the horizontal ones. After conducting unaxial creep deformation of <001> orientated CMSX-4 single crystal superalloy at 1105 °C and 100 MPa, Reed et al. has established that rafting is beneficial to creep life since it delays evolution of creep strain. In addition, rafting would occur quickly and suppress the accumulation of creep strain until a critical strain is reached.[39]

Oxidation in superalloys[edit]

For superalloys operating at high temperatures and exposed to corrosive environments, the oxidation behavior is of paramount concern. Oxidation involves chemical reactions of the alloying elements with oxygen to form new oxide phases, generally at the surface of the metal. If unmitigated, oxidation can degrade the alloy over time in a variety of ways, including:[40][41]

  • sequential oxidation, cracking, and spalling of the surface, leading to erosion of the alloy over time
  • embrittlement of the surface through the introduction of oxide phases, promoting crack formation and fatigue failure
  • depletion of key alloying elements, affecting the mechanical properties of the superalloy and possibly compromising its performance

The primary strategy used to limit these deleterious processes is called selective oxidation. Simply, the alloy is designed such that the ratio of alloying elements promotes formation of a specific oxide phase that can then act as a barrier to further oxidation. Most commonly, aluminum and chromium are used in this role, because they form relatively thin and continuous oxide layers of alumina (Al2O3) and chromia (Cr2O3), respectively. Furthermore, they possess low oxygen diffusivities, effectively halting further oxidation beneath this layer. In the ideal case, oxidation proceeds through two stages. First, transient oxidation involves the conversion of various elements, especially the majority elements (e.g. nickel or cobalt). Transient oxidation proceeds until the selective oxidation of the sacrificial element forms a complete barrier layer.[40]

The protective effect of selective oxidation can be undermined by numerous mechanisms. The continuity of the thin sacrificial oxide layer can be compromised by mechanical disruption due to stress or may be disrupted as a result of the kinetics of oxidation (e.g. if diffusion of oxygen is too fast). If the layer is not continuous, its effectiveness as a diffusion barrier to oxygen is significantly reduced. The stability of the oxide layer is also strongly influenced by the presence of other minority elements. For example, the addition of boron, silicon, and yttrium to superalloys promotes oxide layer adhesion, reducing spalling and maintaining the integrity of the protective oxide layer.[42]

Oxidation is only the most basic form of chemical degradation superalloys may experience. More complex corrosion processes are common when operating environments include salts and sulfur compounds, or under chemical conditions that change dramatically over time. These issues and those of basic oxidation are often also addressed through thin coatings.

Superalloy processing[edit]

The historical developments in superalloy processing have brought about considerable increases in superalloy operating temperatures. Superalloys were originally iron-based and cold wrought prior to the 1940s. In the 1940s investment casting of cobalt base alloys significantly raised operating temperatures. The development of vacuum melting in the 1950s allowed for very fine control of the chemical composition of superalloys and reduction in contamination and in turn led to a revolution in processing techniques such as directional solidification of alloys and single crystal superalloys.[43][page needed]

There are many forms of superalloy present within a gas turbine engine, and processing methods vary widely depending on the necessary properties of each specific part.

Casting and forging[edit]

Casting and forging are traditional metallurgical processing techniques that can be used to generate both polycrystalline and monocrystalline products. Polycrystalline casts tend to have higher fracture resistance, while monocrystalline casts have higher creep resistance.

Jet turbine engines employ both poly and mono crystalline components to take advantage of their individual strengths. The disks of the high-pressure turbine, which are near the central hub of the engine are polycrystalline. The turbine blades, which extend radially into the engine housing, experience a much greater centripetal force, necessitating creep resistance. As a result, turbine blades are typically monocrystalline or polycrystalline with a preferred crystal orientation.

Investment casting[edit]

Investment casting is a metallurgical processing technique in which a wax form is fabricated and used as a template for a ceramic mold. Briefly, a ceramic mold is poured around the wax form, the wax form is melted out of the ceramic mold, and molten metal is poured into the void left by the wax. This leads to a metal form in the same shape as the original wax form. Investment casting leads to a polycrystalline final product, as nucleation and growth of crystal grains occurs at numerous locations throughout the solid matrix. Generally, the polycrystalline product has no preferred grain orientation.

Directional solidification[edit]

Schematic of directional solidification

Directional solidification uses a thermal gradient to promote nucleation of metal grains on a low temperature surface, as well as to promote their growth along the temperature gradient. This leads to grains elongated along the temperature gradient, and significantly greater creep resistance parallel to the long grain direction. In polycrystalline turbine blades, directional solidification is used to orient the grains parallel to the centripetal force. It is also known as dendritic solidification.

Single crystal growth[edit]

Single crystal growth starts with a seed crystal which is used to template growth of a larger crystal. The overall process is lengthy, and additional processing via machining is necessary after the single crystal is grown.

Powder metallurgy[edit]

Powder metallurgy is a class of modern processing techniques in which metals are first converted into a powdered form, and then formed into the desired shape by heating below the melting point. This is in contrast to casting, which occurs with molten metal. Superalloy manufacturing often employs powder metallurgy because of its material efficiency - typically much less waste metal must be machined away from the final product—and its ability to facilitate mechanical alloying. Mechanical alloying is a process by which reinforcing particles are incorporated into the superalloy matrix material by repeated fracture and welding.[44][failed verification]

Sintering and hot isostatic pressing[edit]

Sintering and hot isostatic pressing are processing techniques used to densify materials from a loosely packed "green body" into a solid object with physically merged grains. Sintering occurs below the melting point, and causes adjacent particles to merge at their boundaries, leading to a strong bond between them. In hot isostatic pressing, a sintered material is placed in a pressure vessel and compressed from all directions (isostatically) in an inert atmosphere to affect densification.[45]

Additive manufacturing[edit]

Selective laser melting (also known as powder bed fusion) is an additive manufacturing procedure used to create intricately detailed forms from a CAD file. In CAD, a shape is designed and then converted into slices. These slices are sent to a laser writer to print the final product. In brief, a bed of metal powder is prepared, and the first slice of the CAD design is formed in the powder bed by a high energy laser sintering the particles together. After this first slice is generated, the powder bed moves downwards, and a new batch of metal powder is rolled over the top of the slice. The second layer is then sintered with the laser, and the process is repeated until all the slices in the CAD file have been processed.[46] Due to the nature of many additive manufacturing processes, porosity can be present in products made by selective laser melting. Many products will often undergo a heat treatment or hot isostatic pressing procedure to densify the product and reduce porosity which can result in cracking.[47]

Additive manufacturing for these applications is therefore particularly challenging.

Coating of superalloys[edit]

In modern gas turbine, the turbine entry temperature (~1750K) has exceeded the incipient melting temperature of superalloys (~1600K), with the help of surface engineering. Under such extreme working condition, the qualification of coating becomes vital.[48][page needed]

Different types of coating[edit]

Historically, three "generations" of coatings have been developed: diffusion coatings, overlay coatings and thermal barrier coatings. Diffusion coatings, mainly constituted with aluminide or platinum-aluminide, is still the most common form of surface protection. To further enhance resistance to corrosion and oxidation, MCrAlX-based overlay coatings (M=Ni or Co, X=Y, Hf, Si) are deposited to surface of superalloys. Compared to diffusion coatings, overlay coatings are less dependent on the composition of the substrate, but also more expensive, since they must be carried out by air or vacuum plasma spraying (APS/VPS)[49][page needed] or else electron beam physical vapour deposition (EB-PVD).[50] Thermal barrier coatings provide by far the best enhancement in working temperature and coating life. It is estimated that modern TBC of thickness 300 μm, if used in conjunction with a hollow component and cooling air, has the potential to lower metal surface temperatures by a few hundred degrees.[51]

Thermal barrier coatings[edit]

Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are used extensively on the surface of superalloy in both commercial and military gas turbine engines to increase component life and engine performance.[52] A coating of about 1-200 µm can reduce the temperature at the superalloy surface by up to 200K. TBCs are really a system of coatings consisting of a bond coat, a thermally grown oxide (TGO), and a thermally insulating ceramic top coat. In most applications, the bond coat is either a MCrAlY (where M=Ni or NiCo) or a Pt modified aluminide coating. A dense bond coat is required to provide protection of the superalloy substrate from oxidation and hot corrosion attack and to form an adherent, slow growing TGO on its surface. The TGO is formed by oxidation of the aluminum that is contained in the bond coat. The current (first generation) thermal insulation layer is composed of 7wt % yttria-stabilized zirconia (7YSZ) with a typical thickness of 100–300 µm. Yttria stabilized zirconia is used due to its low thermal conductivity (2.6W/mK for fully dense material), relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion, and good high temperature stability. The electron beam directed vapor deposition (EB-DVD) process used to apply the TBC to turbine airfoils produces a columnar microstructure with several levels of porosity. The porosity between the columns is critical to providing strain tolerance (via a very low in-plane modulus), as it would otherwise spall on thermal cycling due to thermal expansion mismatch with the superalloy substrate. The porosity within the columns reduces the thermal conductivity of the coating.

Bond coat[edit]

The bond coat adheres the thermal barrier coating to the superalloy substrate. Additionally, the bond coat provides oxidation protection and functions as a diffusion barrier against the motion of substrate atoms towards the environment. There are five major types of bond coats, the aluminides, the platinum-aluminides, MCrAlY, cobalt-cermets, and nickel-chromium. For the aluminide bond coatings, the final composition and structure of the coating depends on the composition of the substrate. Aluminides also lack ductility below 750 °C, and exhibit a limited by thermomechanical fatigue strength. The Pt-aluminides are very similar to the aluminide bond coats except for a layer of Pt (5—10 μm) deposited on the blade. The Pt is believed to aid in oxide adhesion and contributes to hot corrosion. The cost of Pt plating is justified by the increased blade life span. The MCrAlY is the latest generation of bond coat and does not strongly interact with the substrate. Normally applied by plasma spraying, MCrAlY coatings are secondary aluminum oxide formers. This means that the coatings form an outer layer of chromium oxide (chromia), and a secondary aluminum oxide (alumina) layer underneath. These oxide formations occur at high temperatures in the range of those that superalloys usually encounter.[53] The chromia provides oxidation and hot-corrosion resistance. The alumina controls oxidation mechanisms by limiting oxide growth by self-passivating. The yttrium enhances the oxide adherence to the substrate, and limits the growth of grain boundaries (which can lead to flaking of the coating).[54] Investigation indicates that addition of rhenium and tantalum increases oxidation resistance. Cobalt-cermet-based coatings consisting of materials such as tungsten carbide/cobalt can be used due to excellent resistance to abrasion, corrosion, erosion, and heat.[55][full citation needed] These cermet coatings perform well in situations where temperature and oxidation damage are significant concerns, such as boilers. One of the unique advantages of cobalt SoftPerfect Connection Emulator Crack Pro 1.8 + Serial Key 2021 coatings is a minimal loss of coating mass over time, due to the strength of carbides within the mixture. Overall, cermet coatings are useful in situations where mechanical demands are equal to chemical demands for superalloys. Nickel-chromium coatings are used most frequently in boilers fed by fossil fuels, electric furnaces, and waste incineration furnaces, where the danger of oxidizing agents and corrosive compounds in the vapor must be dealt with.[56] The specific method of spray-coating depends on the composition of the coatings. Nickel-chromium coatings that also contain iron or aluminum perform much better (in terms of corrosion resistance) when they are sprayed and laser glazed, while pure nickel-chromium coatings perform better when thermally sprayed exclusively.[57]

Process methods of coating[edit]

Superalloy products that are subjected to high working temperatures and corrosive atmosphere (such as high-pressure turbine region of jet engines) are coated with various kinds of coating. Several kinds of coating process are applied: pack cementation process, gas phase coating (both are a type of chemical vapor deposition (CVD)), thermal spraying, and physical vapor deposition. In most cases, after the coating process near-surface regions of parts are enriched with aluminium, the matrix of the coating being nickel aluminide.

Pack cementation process[edit]

Pack cementation is a widely used chemical vapor deposition technique which consists of immersing the components to be coated in a metal powder mixture and ammonium halide activators and sealing them in a retort. The entire apparatus is placed inside a furnace and heated in a protective atmosphere to a lower than normal temperature for diffusion to take place, due to the halide salts chemical reaction which causes an eutectic bond between the two metals. The new surface alloy that is formed due to thermal diffused ion advanced uninstaller pro portable - Crack Key For U has a metallurgical bond to the surface substrate and a true intermetallic layer found in the gamma layer of the new surface alloys.

The traditional pack consists of four components:

Substrate or parts- Ferrous and non-ferrous Powdered alloy- (Ti and/or Al, Si and/or Zn, B and/ or Cr) Halide salt activator- Ammonium halide salts Relatively inert filler powder (Al2O3, SiO2, or SiC) Temperatures below (750 °C) This process includes but is not limited to:

Aluminizing Chromizing Siliconizing Sherardizing Boronizing Titaniumizing

Pack Cementation has had a revival in the last 10 years as it is being combined with other chemical processes to lower the temperatures of metal combinations even further and give intermetallic properties to different alloy combinations for surface treatments.

Thermal spraying[edit]

Thermal spraying is a process of applying coatings by heating a feedstock of precursor material and spraying it on a surface. Different specific techniques are used depending on desired particle size, coat thickness, spray speed, desired area, etc.[58][full citation needed] The coatings applied by thermal spraying of any kind, however, rely on adhesion to the surface. As a result, the surface of the superalloy must be cleaned and prepared, usually polished, before application of the thermal coating.[59]

Plasma spraying[edit]

Of the various thermal spray methods, one of the more ideal and commonly used techniques for coating superalloys is plasma spraying. This is due to the versatility of usable coatings, and the high-temperature performance of plasma-sprayed coatings.[60] Plasma spraying can accommodate a very wide range of materials, much more so than other techniques. As long as the difference between melting and decomposition temperatures is greater than 300 Kelvin, a material can be melted and applied as a coating via plasma spraying.[61][page needed]

Gas phase coating[edit]

This process is carried out at higher temperatures, about 1080 °C. The coating material is usually loaded onto special trays without physical contact with the parts to be coated. The coating mixture contains active coating material and activator, but usually does not contain thermal ballast. As in the pack cementation process, the gaseous aluminium chloride (or fluoride) is transferred to the surface of the part. However, in this case the diffusion is outwards. This kind of coating also requires diffusion heat treatment.

Failure mechanisms in thermal barrier coating systems[edit]

Failure of thermal barrier coating usually manifests as delamination, which arises from the temperature gradient during thermal cycling between ambient temperature and working conditions coupled with the difference in thermal expansion coefficient of the substrate and coating. It is rare for the coating to fail completely – some pieces of it remain intact, and significant scatter is observed in the time to failure if testing is repeated under identical conditions.[3][page needed] There are various degradation mechanisms for thermal barrier coating,[62][63] and some or all of these must operate before failure finally occurs:

Additionally, TBC life is very dependent upon the combination of materials (substrate, bond coat, ceramic) and processes (EB-PVD, plasma spraying) used.

Applications[edit]

Nickel-based superalloys are used in load-bearing structures to the highest homologous temperature of any common alloy system (Tm = 0.9, or 90% of their melting point). Among the most demanding applications for a structural material are those in the hot sections of turbine engines. The preeminence of superalloys is reflected in the fact that they currently comprise over 50% of the weight of advanced aircraft engines. The widespread use of superalloys in turbine engines coupled with the fact that the thermodynamic efficiency of turbine engines is increased with increasing turbine inlet temperatures has, in part, provided the motivation for increasing the maximum-use temperature of superalloys. In fact, during the past 30 years turbine airfoil temperature capability has increased on average by about 4 °F (2.2 °C) per year. Two major factors which have made this increase possible are:

  1. Advanced processing techniques, which improved alloy cleanliness (thus improving reliability) and/or enabled the production of tailored microstructures such as directionally solidified or single-crystal material.
  2. Alloy development resulting in higher-use-temperature materials primarily through the additions of refractory elements such as Re, W, Ta, and Mo.

About 60% of the use-temperature increases have occurred due to advanced cooling concepts; 40% have resulted from material improvements. State-of-the-art turbine blade surface temperatures are near 2,100 °F (1,150 °C); the most severe combinations of stress and temperature corresponds to an average bulk metal temperature approaching 1,830 °F (1,000 °C).

Although Nickel-based superalloys retain significant strength to temperatures near 1,800 °F (980 °C), they tend to be susceptible to environmental attack because of the presence of reactive alloying elements (which provide their high-temperature strength). Surface attack includes oxidation, hot corrosion, and thermal fatigue. In the most demanding applications, such as turbine blade and vanes, superalloys are often coated to improve environmental resistance.[17]

In general, high temperature materials are needed for energy conversion and energy production applications. Maximum energy conversion efficiency is desired in these energy applications, which can be achieved by increasing operating temperatures, as described by the Carnot cycle. Because Carnot efficiency is limited by the temperature difference between the hot and cold reservoirs, higher operating temperatures result in higher energy conversion efficiencies. Operating temperatures are limited by the performance of today’s superalloys, and currently, most applications operate at around 1000 °C-1400 °C. Energy applications and their superalloy components include:[76]

  • Gas turbines (turbine blades)
  • Solar thermal power plants (stainless steel rods containing heated water)
  • Steam turbines (turbine blades and boiler housing)
  • Heat exchangers for nuclear reactor systems

Alumina-forming stainless steels can be acid pro 10 - Crack Key For U via melting and ladle casting, similar to the production of more common steels. Compared to vacuum casting processes, ladle casting is much less expensive. In addition, alumina-forming stainless steel has been shown to be weldable and has potential for use in high performance automotive applications, such as for high temperature exhaust piping and in heat capture and reuse.

Research and development of new superalloys[edit]

The availability of superalloys during past decades has led to a steady increase in turbine entry temperatures, and the trend is expected to continue. Sandia National Laboratories sam broadcaster 4 studying a new method for making superalloys, known as radiolysis. It introduces an entirely new area of research into creating alloys and superalloys through nanoparticle synthesis. This process holds promise as a universal method of nanoparticle formation. By developing an understanding of the basic material science behind these nanoparticle formations, there is speculation that it might be possible to expand research into other aspects of superalloys.

There may be considerable disadvantages in making alloys by this method. About half of the use of superalloys is in applications where the service temperature is close to the melting temperature of the alloy. It is common therefore to use single crystals. The above method produces polycrystalline alloys, which suffer from an unacceptable level of creep.

Future paradigms in alloy development are expected to focus on weight reduction and improving oxidation and corrosion resistance while maintaining the strength of the alloy. Furthermore, with the increasing demand for turbine blades for power generation, another focus of alloy design is to reduce the cost of superalloys.

There has been ongoing research and development of new stainless steel alloys because of the lower costs in producing such alloys, as well as the need for an austenitic stainless steel with high-temperature corrosion resistance in environments with water vapor. Research is focusing on increasing high-temperature tensile strength, toughness, and creep resistance to compete with Ni-based superalloys.[29]

A new class of alumina-forming austenitic stainless steel is actively being developed for use in high-temperature applications by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Initial research showed similar creep and corrosion resistance at 800 °C to that of other austenitic alloys, including Ni-based superalloys.[29]

Development of AFA superalloys with a 35 wt.% Ni-base have shown potential for use in operating temperatures upwards to 1,100 °C.[29]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superalloy

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When Vitamin And Nutritional Deficiencies Cause Skin And Nail Changes

If patients are not getting enough micronutrients or macronutrients, dermatologic conditions can arise in the skin and nails. Accordingly, this author offers salient insights on cutaneous manifestations of various vitamin and nutritional deficiencies.

Numerous skin and nail changes result from macronutrient and micronutrient deficiency. Macronutrients include carbohydrates, fats and protein whereas micronutrients include vitamins and minerals. In developed countries, vitamin and nutritional deficiencies most commonly result from poverty, restrictive diets, medication, alcoholism and inadequate dietary intake in the ill and elderly. Recognition of skin and nail changes can be an important tool for diagnosing underlying nutritional deficiencies.  

In developed nations, macronutrient deficiency is very rare. Protein and essential fatty acid deficiency occur more frequently than carbohydrate deficiency due to the high carbohydrate content of many foods. Both protein and essential fatty acid deficiencies result in cutaneous and nail disorders as App Builder 2021.52 Crack + Keygen Key Free Download Latest nutrients serve as building blocks for these structures.

Protein is a critical nutrient for human growth and maintenance of body tissues. Proteins perform a large array of functions including catalyzing metabolic reactions, replicating DNA, transporting molecules and cell signaling. Amino acids are the primary constituent of protein. The nutritional characteristics of a protein depend on its amino acid composition. There are nine essential amino acids: histidine, lysine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, tryptophan, threonine, valine and phenylalanine.

Protein-energy malnutrition results from inadequate protein intake. In developed countries, protein deficiency is most commonly associated with disease and advanced age. Severe protein deficiency results in kwashiorkor, which is characterized by edema, irritability, anorexia, ulcerating dermatoses and liver enlargement.1,2 In addition to ulcerating dermatoses, there are several other dermatologic manifestations of protein deficiency including desquamative rash, hair discoloration and thinning, skin depigmentation, impaired wound healing and dermatitis.1,2

Essential fatty acids are those that people must ingest as the body cannot synthesize them. The two essential fatty acids are linoleic acid (omega-6 fatty acid) and alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3 fatty acid). Essential fatty acid deficiency is very rare as even small amounts of dietary intake can prevent deficiency. In cases of essential fatty acid deficiency, scaly dermatitis, alopecia and intellectual disability can result.3

Understanding The Dangers Of Vitamin Deficiency
Vitamin deficiencies are frequent causes of several dermatologic disorders. Deficiencies of water-soluble vitamins, such as most B vitamins and vitamin C, may develop after weeks to months of under-nutrition. Deficiencies of fat-soluble vitamins, such as vitamins A, D, E, K and B12, can take up to a year to develop because the body stores them in relatively large amounts.

Biotin is a water-soluble B vitamin that acts as a coenzyme for essential reactions for fat and carbohydrate metabolism. Biotin deficiency is extremely rare due to several factors including a low daily biotin requirement, wide distribution of biotin in readily available foods, biotin synthesis from intestinal bacteria and homeostatic mechanisms for scavenging and recovering biotin from body waste.4,5 However, biotin deficiency can result from total parental nutrition, protein deficiency, prolonged anticonvulsant therapy, severe malnutrition, prolonged oral antibiotic therapy, consumption of raw egg whites, alcohol abuse and excessive antidiuretic medication use.6

Dermatologic signs of biotin deficiency include thinning of hair and hair loss, patchy red rash (most commonly near the mouth), seborrheic dermatitis and fungal skin and nail infections.6 Other conditions associated with biotin deficiency include hallucinations, lethargy, anorexia, depression, myalgia and paresthesias.6

Folate is required for red blood cell production and DNA synthesis. Folate deficiency is a common disorder and results from under-nutrition, alcoholism, malabsorption, increased folate demand (pregnancy and lactation) and medications such as metformin, triamterene (Dyrenium, WellSpring Pharmaceutical), oral contraceptives, anticonvulsants and methotrexate.7 Symptoms of folate deficiency include weakness, loss of appetite and weight loss.8 Severe folate deficiency results in megaloblastic anemia, which is characterized by large, abnormally nucleated erythrocytes. Symptoms of megaloblastic anemia include weakness, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, irritability, headache, heart palpitations and shortness of breath.9,10 Dermatologic manifestations of folate deficiency include painful oral mucosa, pallor and changes in skin, hair or fingernail pigmentation.9,10

A Closer Look At Specific Vitamin Deficiencies
Niacin (vitamin B3).
Niacin plays an important role in cell metabolism, namely oxidation-reduction reactions. Pellagra is a disorder that results from a chronic lack of niacin. Pellagra is rare in developed countries. It most commonly arises in areas where maize is a substantial part of the diet. Maize is a poor source of niacin because the gastrointestinal tract does not assimilate bound niacin unless it has been treated with alkali.11 Pellagra is classically described by the four D’s: diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia and death.12

Cutaneous manifestations of niacin deficiency include sunlight sensitivity, dermatitis, hair loss and red skin lesions.12 Skin lesions in pellagra tend to be symmetric and occur in sun-exposed areas and on pressure points. The appearance of skin lesions in pellagra can be variable but the symmetric distribution at pressure points and sun-exposed skin is more pathognomonic.12 Lesions can develop in a glove-like distribution on the hands (pellagrous glove) or in a boot-shaped distribution on the feet and legs (pellagrous boot).12 Additionally, sunlight can cause casal necklace, an erythematous rash in the distribution of a broad collar and butterfly-shaped lesions on the face.12

Vitamin B6. Vitamin B6 is an important cofactor in many enzymatic reactions of amino acid, lipid and glucose metabolism. It plays an important role in hemoglobin synthesis and function. While rare, dietary deficiency of vitamin B6 can result from excessive food processing, under-nutrition, malabsorption, renal disease and alcoholism. Other causes include the use of pyridoxine-inactivating drugs such as anticonvulsants, isoniazid (Laniazid), cycloserine (Seromycin), hydralazine (Apresoline, Novartis), corticosteroids or penicillamine (Cuprimine, Valeant Pharmaceuticals).13,14 Isolated vitamin B6 deficiency is uncommon and usually associated with low levels of other B vitamins.

The classic clinical syndrome for vitamin B6 deficiency is a seborrheic dermatitis-like eruption, atrophic glossitis with ulceration, angular cheilitis (scaling on the lips and cracks at the corners of the mouth), conjunctivitis, intertrigo, sideroblastic anemia (due to impaired heme synthesis) and neurologic symptoms of somnolence, confusion, depression and neuropathy.13,14

Vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 plays a key role in metabolism, nervous system function and red blood cell formation. Specifically, it has important functions in DNA synthesis and regulation, fatty acid metabolism and amino acid metabolism.16 Causes of vitamin B12 deficiency include inadequate diet (vegan diet), impaired absorption (lack of intrinsic factor, decreased GI acid secretion, small bowel disease) and drugs (antacids, metformin, nitrous oxide).16 The main clinical syndrome resulting from vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anemia, which is characterized by megaloblastic anemia.

Gastrointestinal symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency include abdominal pain and weight loss as well as neurologic symptoms including sensory and motor neuropathy, seizure, depression and dementia.17 Cutaneous manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency include pallor and brown-gray fingernail and toenail discoloration.18

Vitamin A. Vitamin A is important in the maintenance of epithelial tissues. Vitamin A is present in fish oils, liver, egg yolks, butter and vitamin A-fortified diary products. Additionally, vitamin A is a product of beta-carotene and other provitamin carotenoids that are part of green leafy and yellow vegetables, and deep and bright colored fruit. Vitamin A deficiency can result from inadequate intake, fat malabsorption and liver disorders, and can lead to numerous ophthalmologic, systemic and dermatologic conditions.

Ocular manifestations of vitamin A deficiency include xerophthalmia (dry eyes), keratomalacia (corneal necrosis/ulceration), nyctalopia (night blindness), Bitot’s spots (conjunctival lesions) and photophobia.20 Dermatologic manifestations of vitamin A deficiency include generalized xerosis and follicular hyperkeratosis.19 Xeroses resulting from vitamin A deficiency are characterized by fine wrinkles and scales.19 Follicular hyperkeratosis is characterized by red-brown follicular papules with a central keratotic spinous plug.19 These lesions are usually clustered around the bony prominences of the elbows and the knees, but may extend further up and down the extremities.19

Vitamin C. Vitamin C is a cofactor in numerous collagen synthesis reactions and plays an essential role in collagen and amino acid formation. Vitamin C is an antioxidant that supports immune function and is also essential to wound healing. Severe vitamin C deficiency results in scurvy, which is characterized by general weakness, anemia, gum disease and skin hemorrhages.21,22 In developed nations, scurvy is very rare and milder vitamin C deficiency resulting from under- or malnutrition is more common.

Systemic symptoms of vitamin C deficiency include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, myalgia and arthralgias.20,21 Dermatologic manifestations of vitamin C deficiency result from defects in connective tissue development and include rough skin, follicular hyperkeratosis, coiled hair, perifollicular hemorrhages, easy bruising, petechiae and skin tears.20,21 Deficiency also results in poor wound healing and secondary infections.20,21

When Patients Are Not Getting Enough Minerals, Iron Or Zinc
Six micronutrients (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride and phosphorus) and nine trace minerals (zinc, selenium, molybdenum, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese and fluorine) are required in the human diet. Mineral deficiency can result from inadequate consumption, inadequate digestion or absorption, and increased demand for minerals. Mineral deficiencies are more common in children due to their increased requirements secondary to growth.

Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world. Iron has numerous functions in the body including carrying oxygen to tissues, serving as cytochromes to carry electrons within cells, facilitating oxygen storage in muscle and facilitating numerous enzymatic reactions in tissues.23 Iron deficiency can range from depleted iron stores without functional impairment to iron deficiency anemia, which affects several organ systems. Iron deficiency has several dermatologic manifestations including pallor, hair loss, brittle nails, nails with a central groove and koilonychia (spoon shaped nails).18 Additional symptoms of iron deficiency anemia include anxiety, irritability, sleepiness, heart palpitations, syncope and shortness of breath.23

Zinc is a mineral that is an important component of numerous enzymes and plays an essential role in several biochemical pathways. Zinc deficiency most commonly results from inadequate dietary intake but can also result from inadequate absorption (small bowel disease) and increased loss (diuretics, hepatic insufficiency).24 Symptoms of zinc deficiency include hypogonadism, alopecia, impaired immunity, anorexia, dermatitis, night blindness, anemia, lethargy and impaired wound healing.16 Specific dermatologic manifestations of zinc deficiency include dermatitis, xerosis, seborrheic dermatitis, thin hair and impaired wound healing.16

Pertinent Insights On Specific Lower Extremity Skin And Nail Manifestations
Several skin and nail changes can be signs of an underlying nutritional deficiency. Recognition of these symptoms caused by nutritional deficiency can help aid in the diagnosis and subsequent treatment.

Pallor. Pallor results from decreased oxyhemoglobin in the skin. Severe anemia can lead to skin pallor. Anemia is associated with numerous nutritional deficiencies including iron deficiency, zinc deficiency, vitamin B12 deficiency, vitamin B6 deficiency and folate deficiency.

Impaired wound healing. Impaired wound healing can result from nutritional deficiencies, including protein, vitamin C and zinc deficiency. Protein-energy malnutrition can affect wound healing. Serum albumin and total lymphocyte count are valid tests of a patient’s protein nutrition status.25 Serum albumin levels less than 3.5 mg/dL and total lymphocyte counts less than 1,500/mm3 are associated with delayed wound healing.25 Researchers have shown that nutritional supplementation with protein dense oral supplements improves wound healing.26 Malnutrition with resulting zinc and vitamin C deficiency can also result in impaired wound healing. Zinc and vitamin C supplementation may aid in the wound healing process.27,28

Dermatitis. Dermatitis is characterized by itchy, erythematous, edematous, vesicular, nero software - Crack Key For U, flaking and crusting patches of skin. Protein, essential fatty acid, niacin (vitamin B3) and zinc deficiency can result in dermatitis.

Seborrheic dermatitis. Seborrheic dermatitis is an inflammatory skin condition that causes erythema and flaky, white to yellowish scales to form on oily sebaceous gland rich areas, such as the scalp and nasolabial fold. Seborrheic dermatitis can be a symptom of vitamin B6, biotin and zinc deficiency.

Petechiae. Petechiae are small 1-2 mm red or purple spots on the skin that result from minor hemorrhage due to broken capillary blood vessels. Petechiae can result from both niacin (vitamin B3) and vitamin C deficiency.

Follicular hyperkeratosis. Follicular hyperkeratosis is a skin condition characterized by excessive development of keratin in hair follicles, resulting in red-brown follicular papules with a central keratotic plug. The follicle openings are often closed with a white plug of sebum. Several vitamin deficiencies can result in follicular hyperkeratosis including vitamin A, B and C deficiency.19,29 Several studies have shown that supplementation with vitamins and essential fatty acids can lead to improvement and resolution of this condition.29

Xerosis. Xerosis is abnormal dryness of the skin and mucous membrane. This condition is characterized by dry, scaling, itching, and cracking skin. Both vitamin A and zinc deficiency can result in xerosis.

Nail color changes. Nail plate discoloration can result from several nutritional deficiencies. Research has shown vitamin B12 deficiency to cause brown-gray nail discoloration.18 White nails can be the result of anemia and pink or red nails may suggest malnutrition with several nutrient and vitamin deficiencies.30 Additionally, biotin deficiency can increase the risk of fungal nail infections and subsequent nail plate discoloration.31

Changes in nail shape and surface. Nutritional deficiencies can cause several changes in the shape and surface of nail plates. A central nail plate ridge can arise from iron deficiency, folic acid deficiency or protein deficiency.30 A central nail groove can result from iron deficiency.30 Beads that appear to drip down the nail like wax are associated with vitamin B deficiencies.18 Koilonychia is associated with iron deficiency and protein deficiency, especially deficiency of sulfur-containing amino acids.32 Beau’s lines are transverse depressions in the nail plate caused by temporary cessation of nail growth. Researchers have proposed severe zinc deficiency as a cause of Beau’s lines.31,33  

In Conclusion
Numerous skin and nail changes result from macronutrient and micronutrient deficiency. Recognizing these dermatologic symptoms associated with nutritional deficiencies can be an important diagnostic tool and lead to appropriate treatment.

Dr. Hoffman is in private practice in Boulder, Colo.

References

  1.     Beers MH, Berkow R. Nutritional Disorders: Malnutrition. In: The Merck Manual, 17th Edition. Merck, Whitehouse Station, NJ, 1999, pp. 28-32.
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  3.     James W, Berger T, Elston. Andrews’ Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology, 10th Edition. Saunders, Philadelphia, 2005, pp. 468-477.
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  5.     Velazquez A. Biotin deficiency in protein-energy malnutrition: implications for nutritional homeostasis and individuality. Nutrition. 1997;13(11-12):991-12.
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  7.     National Institutes of Health. NIH Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Folate. Available at https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/folate.asp. Published Dec. 14, 2012. Accessed Dec. 4, 2014.
  8.     Antony AC. Megaloblastic anemias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI (eds.): Cecil Medicine, 24th Edition, Chapter 167. Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia, 2011.
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  10.     Carmel R. Folic Acid. In: Shils M, Shike M, Ross A, Caballero B, Cousins R (eds.): Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2005, pp. 470-481.
  11.     Pitche P. Pellagra. Sante. 2005; 15(3):205-8.
  12.     Hegyi J, Schwartz RA, Hegyi V. Pellagra: Dermatitis, dementia, and diarrhea. Int J Dermat. 2004; 43(1):1a-5.
  13.     Institute of Medicine (US) Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes and its Panel on Folate, Other B Vitamins, and Choline. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1998. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK114310/ .
  14.     McCormick D. Vitamin B6. In: Bowman B, Russell R (eds.): Present Knowledge in Nutrition, Ninth Edition. International Life Sciences Institute, Washington, DC, 2006, pp. 269-277.
  15.     Mackey AD, Davis SR, Gregory JF, 3rd. Vitamin B6. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, et al (eds.): Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 10th Edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2006, pp. 452-461.
  16.     Yamada K. Cobalt: its role in health and disease. In Sigel A, Sigel H, Sigel RKO (eds.): Interrelations between Essential Metal Ions and Human Diseases. Metal Ions in Life Sciences, Chapter 13. Springer, Philadelphia, 2013, pp. 295-320.
  17.     Sethi NK, Robilotti E, Sadan Y. Neurological manifestations of vitamin B-12 deficiency. J Nutrition Wellness. 2005; 2(1):32-38.
  18.     Williams ME. Examining the fingernails when evaluating presenting symptoms in elderly patients: observing the nail shape and surface. Medscape Family Medicine. Available at https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/712251_2. Published Nov. 3, 2009. Accessed Dec. 4, 2014.
  19.     Schwartz RA, Centurion SA, Gascon P, et al. Dermatologic manifestations of vitamin A deficiency clinical presentation. Medscape. Available at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1104441-overview. Published June 27, 2014. Accessed Dec. 4, 2014.
  20.     Roncone DP. Xerophthalmia secondary vuescan pro 9.6 06 crack - Crack Key For U alcohol-induced malnutrition. Optometry. 2006;77(3):124-33.
  21.     Weinstein M, Babyn P, Zlotkin S. An orange a day keeps the doctor away: scurvy in the year 2000. Pediatrics. 2001;108(3):E55.
  22.     Wang AH, Still C. Old world meets modern: a case report of scurvy. Nutr Clin Pract. 2007;22(4):445-8.
  23.     Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Iron deficiency — United States, 1999–2000. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2002; 51(40):897-99.
  24.     Yamada T, Alpers DH, et al. Textbook of Gastroenterology, Fifth Edition. Blackwell Pub, Hoboken, NJ, 2009, pp. 495, 498, 499, 1274, 2526.
  25.     Dickhaut SC, DeLee JC, Page CP. Nutritional status: importance in predicting wound-healing after amputation. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1984;66(1):71-75.
  26.     Collins CE, Kershaw J, Brockington B. Effect of nutritional supplements on wound healing in home-nursed elderly: A randomized trial. Nutrition. 2005;21(2):147-155.
  27.     Lansdown ABG, Mirastschijski U, Stubbs N, et al. Zinc in wound healing: Theoretical, experimental, and clinical aspects. Wound Repair Regen. 2007;15(1):2–16.
  28.     Desneves KJ, Todorovic BE, Cassar A, Crowe TC. Treatment with supplementary arginine, vitamin C and zinc in patients with pressure ulcers: a randomized control trial. Clinical Nutrition. 2005;24(6),979-987.
  29.     Nadiger, HA. Role of vitamin E in the aetiology of phrynoderma (follicular hyperkeratosis) and its interrelationship with B-complex vitamins. Br J Nutrition. 1980; 44(3):211:80
  30.     Williams ME. The hands and wrists. In: Geriatric Physical Diagnosis: A Guide to Observation and Assessment, Chapter 5. McFarland & Co., Jefferson, NC, 2008, pp. 48-66.
  31.     Singh G. Nail changes and disorders in elderly. Sacchidanand S, Savitha AS (eds.): Nail and Its Disorders, Chapter 6. Jaypee Brothers Medical, London, 2013, pp. 221-237.
  32.     Fawcett RS, Lindford S, Stulberg DL. Nail abnormalities: clues to systemic disease. Am Fam Physician. 2004;69(6):1417-1424.
  33.     Seshadri D, De D. Nails in nutritional deficiencies. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2012;78(3):237-41.

 

Источник: https://www.hmpgloballearningnetwork.com/site/podiatry/when-vitamin-and-nutritional-deficiencies-cause-skin-and-nail-changes

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What do your cravings mean?

Outside of that, milk has high levels of protein (8g) and fat (7g), so if you recently started a diet, your body may be searching for a quick way to appease your hunger.

Milk also contains 18 of the 22 essential vitamins and minerals our bodies need, a number of which – Vitamin A, Vitamin B-12, calcium, magnesium, and zinc – our bodies can’t produce on their own.4

See if your daily meals are giving you enough of these nutrients!

5. Cheese cravings

If you’re craving cheese, fried foods, or other high-fat options, you could need more essential fatty acids, such as omega-3.

Introduce oily fish, whole eggs, avocado, or take a good quality fish oil supplement. Symptoms of an omega-3 deficiency may include dry skin, dry eyes, or lower moods.5,6,7

5. Cheese cravings

6. Craving carbs

If you’re cravings savoury carbs, it’s a sign that you are low on energy.

To an extent, this is to be expected. An energy imbalance is the only way to lose unwanted weight. But carb cravings can also indicate blood sugar fluctuations.

Fill up on fibre-rich carbohydrate foods like fruit (apples and bananas are a good choice), root vegetables, and cruciferous vegetables.

6. Craving carbs

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