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Bed rails: management and safe use

This web page features the most up-to-date guidance. It replaces previous guidance on the same topic.

You can download a PDF version of Safe use of bed rails (PDF, 962KB, 33 pages).

1. Summary

Part of the MHRA’s role is the regulation of medical devices, including overseeing investigations into adverse events and promoting the safe use of devices in the UK.

The MHRA continues to receive reports of incidents relating to bed rails and associated equipment. These incidents are concerning as some have led to patient harm or death, primarily from entrapment.

This publication has been updated to reflect changes in devices and practices, as well as information gained from the investigation of adverse incidents.

Who this guidance is for:

This document is aimed at all users, carers and staff with responsibility for the provision, prescription, use, maintenance and fitting of bed rails. This includes:

  • Medical Device Safety Officers (MDSOs) for onward distribution
  • medical device trainers
  • care home managers and staff
  • carers in the community and care-at-home staff
  • community equipment stores (CES) and loan store managers
  • health and safety or risk managers
  • hospice managers and staff
  • maintenance staff
  • nurses in hospitals and the community
  • occupational therapists
  • physiotherapists
  • those responsible for purchasing beds and bed rails

Scope

This document identifies areas for safe practices, so that policies and procedures can be reviewed and put in place. This includes:

  • risk management
  • management responsibilities
  • meeting legal requirements
  • training
  • planned preventative maintenance.

It also identifies areas of good practice, such as:

  • checking and ensuring that a bed rail is necessary
  • the need for good communication between bed occupant and carers or staff
  • checking compatibility of the bed rail, bed, mattress and occupant combination
  • taking into account the use environment and possible interaction with any other equipment, accessories or devices present in that environment
  • correct fitting and positioning of the bed rails initially and after each period of use
  • re-assessing the changing care needs of the bed occupant.

This document is not intended to replace clinical decision making.

2. Introduction

Bed rails are used extensively in acute, community and home care environments to reduce the risk of bed occupants falling out of bed and injuring themselves.

However, the MHRA continues to receive reports of adverse incidents involving these devices. The most serious of these have led to injury and death by asphyxiation after entrapment of the head, neck or chest.

Most incidents occurred in community care settings, particularly in nursing homes. These could have been prevented if adequate risk assessments and appropriate risk management had been carried out. Clinicians should carefully consider the benefits and risks of bed rails before they are used for an individual bed user.

NHS ‘Never events’ are defined as ‘serious, largely preventable patient safety incidents that should not occur if the available preventative measures have been implemented by healthcare providers. NHS ‘Never events’ number 11 (1) covers chest or neck entrapment in bed rails.

Bed Rails

For the purpose of this document the term bed rail will be adopted, although other names are often used, e.g. bed side rails, side rails, cot sides, and safety sides.

In general, manufacturers intend their bed rails to be used to prevent or reduce the risk of bed occupants from falling and sustaining injury. They are not designed or intended to limit the freedom of people by preventing them from intentionally leaving their beds; nor are they intended to restrain people whose condition disposes them to erratic, repetitive or violent movement.

They may be UKCA, CE or CE UKNI marked as medical devices to show they meet the requirements of the UK Medical Devices Regulations 2002 (as amended) (2), in combination with, or as an accessory to, the bed if their intended use meets the definition of a medical device.

Rigid bed rails can be classified into two basic types:

  • integral types that are incorporated into the bed design and supplied with it or are offered as an optional accessory by the bed manufacturer, to be fitted later.

Figure 1 - Example of an integral bed rail

  • third party types that are not specific to any particular model of bed. They may be intended to fit a wide range of domestic, divan or metal framed beds from different suppliers.

Figure 2 - Example of a 3rd-party bed rail

The integral type is involved in far fewer adverse incidents than the third-party type, usually because risks associated with installation and compatibility are reduced. Bed rails should meet recognised product standards that include acceptable gaps and dimensions when fitted to the bed (See Legislation and Standards).

Figure 3 - Example of a community-style bed with full-length integrated bed rails.

Bed Grab Handles

Bed rails, which fit under the mattress or clamp to the bed frame should not be confused with bed grab handles (also known as bed sticks or bed levers) which are designed to aid mobility in bed and whilst transferring to and from bed.

Bed grab handles can pose the same hazards to users as bed rails, and their use should be carefully considered, risk assessed and documented.

Bed grab handles are not designed to prevent patients falling from their bed. Bed grab handles come in a variety of sizes and designs (Figure 4). They should not be used as, or instead of, bed rails.

Figure 4 - Example of a bed grab handle

Other Devices

Bed rails are often used at the same time as medical devices or equipment. This would naturally include a bed frame and a mattress. Other bed equipment could include pressure-relieving surfaces either passive or active, or other systems such as monitoring equipment depending on the bed occupant’s needs.

The decision to use bed rails should always consider the bed occupant’s care needs, the environment it is used in and what other equipment is or may be present.

Hazard and areas of risk

The use of bed rails is associated with a number of direct and indirect risks to bed occupants, as well as the possible benefits from reducing the risk of falls. Direct hazards include entrapment and entanglement either within gaps in the rails themselves, between the rails and the mattress or between the rails and the bed frame. In the most serious cases, this has led to asphyxiation and death of bed users if they have trapped their head between rails or been unable to free themselves from a position and suffered postural asphyxiation. Severe limb damage has also been reported in cases where someone has become entangled in bed rails. Figure 5 shows the main areas of the bed-bed rail system where entrapment may occur.

Figure 5 - Bed rail entrapment areas. Split rails have additional entrapment risk areas

Indirect hazards are also present: cases have been reported where bed users have been confused or disoriented and have tried to get out of the bed by climbing over the bed rails. Users have then fallen from a greater height than would otherwise be the case, increasing the severity of injury.

3. Risk management and use assessment

Risk management

When medical devices are prescribed, issued or used, it is essential that any risks are balanced against the anticipated benefits to the user. The process of understanding, evaluating, addressing and recording these risks is known as risk management.

Where manufacturers cannot remove or reduce risks during the design and manufacturing processes, subsequent warnings of any remaining risk should be clearly displayed in the user instructions and product markings. These risks must constitute acceptable risks when weighed against the benefits to the bed user. Any such warnings or limitations to use, including the necessary maintenance schedules throughout its intended life, should be considered both during procurement and by prescribers, passed on to all users and carers of the equipment and steps taken to ensure that they are understood and complied with.

Users, carers and prescribers need to follow the manufacturer’s instructions for use and any warnings about associated risks. The equipment should only be used and maintained in line with the manufacturer’s instructions for use.

Risk assessment

There are many bed rails on the market, having a variety of fitting and operation methods.

The possible combinations of bed rails, beds and mattresses (and other equipment in the environment), together with the differences between bed occupants, means that a careful, thorough and individual risk assessment is necessary if serious incidents are to be avoided.

Risk assessments should be carried out before the initial prescription of bed rails and then reviewed and recorded after each significant change in the bed occupant’s condition, replacement of any part of the equipment combination and regularly during its period of use, according to local policy.

It is unlikely that one type of bed and bed rail will be suitable for a wide range of users with different physical sizes and needs.

The points to consider during a risk assessment include:

  • Is it likely that the bed user would fall from their bed?
  • If so, are bed rails an appropriate solution or could the risk of falling from bed be reduced by means other than bed rails (see Alternatives to rigid bed rails)?
  • Could the use of a bed rail increase risks to the occupant’s physical or clinical condition? (See Case Study 1)
  • Has the bed user used bed rails before? Do they have a history of falling from bed, or conversely of climbing over bed rails?
  • Do the risks of using bed rails outweigh the possible benefits from using them?
  • What are the bed user’s views on using bed rails?
  • What configuration of bed, mattress and rail system is being used?

Our adverse incident investigations have shown that the physical or clinical condition of bed occupants means that some are at greater risk of entrapment in bed rails. Those at greater risk could include older people, adults or children with:

  • communication problems
  • confusion, agitation or delirium
  • learning disabilities
  • dementia
  • repetitive or involuntary movements
  • high or low body mass (which may change entrapment risks)
  • impaired or restricted mobility
  • Variable levels of consciousness, or those under sedation.

Risk assessments should account for any characteristics which might put the bed user at greater risk from use of bed rails.

The decision to use bed rails should be made with the consent of the bed user whenever possible. The reasoning for the decision to issue bed rails should be effectively communicated and recorded, including to the carers or family members when this is appropriate.

CASE STUDY 1 – Inappropriate prescription leading to fall

A bed occupant died after climbing over the bed rails and falling. The user touched the bed position control and raised the bed to its maximum height. They then tried to get out of the bed by climbing over the rail, only to fall and suffer a broken neck. The additional height of the bed rail likely increased the severity of the injury.

Advice – If bed users are known to be in a confused state, then bed rails may serve to increase the overall risk of injury. A risk assessment should have identified the hazard of leaving bed controls accessible and the potential for an increased fall height.

We provide an example of a risk assessment checklist, produced using feedback from prescribers of bed rails and the findings of adverse incident investigations in Appendix 1 – Example adult entrapment risk assessment checklist.

Please note that the example checklist should not be adopted or used without adequate consideration of a specific bed occupant’s needs and local policies.

The checklist should be used in conjunction with the guidance in this document, together with the judgement of the nurse, therapist, bed user and carer involved.

Alternatives to rigid bed rails

Alternatives to bed rails may be considered, such as:

  • ‘netting’ or mesh bed sides
  • ultra ‘low height’ beds that minimise the risk of fall injuries
  • positional wedges to reduce movement across the bed
  • alarm systems to alert carers that a person has moved from their normal position or wants to get out of bed.
  • fall mats that can be placed beside the bed to reduce the severity of the impact if the bed occupant does fall

Each of these options may act to introduce different hazards even as they reduce the risk of bed fall injury or the risk from bed rails, and so should be managed appropriately.

4. Purchase and selection

Purchase

Adjustable or profiling beds usually have compatible integral type bed rails available from the manufacturer; these are preferable to other systems that may not fit as well. In all cases it is essential that the selection process follows a risk assessment considering the needs of the bed occupant and the use environment.

Third party bed rails require particularly careful selection.

If bed rails are being purchased for stock, general factors can be considered at the purchase stage:

  • the types of bed they are likely to be used on; specific models or range
  • whether they meet any recognised product standards regarding dimensions

Risk assessments should be carried out before use and then reviewed and recorded after each significant change in the bed occupant’s condition, replacement of any part of the equipment combination and regularly during its period of use, according to local policy. An example of a risk assessment checklist is included in Appendix 1.

The manufacturer’s instructions for use should contain information on the selection of the mattress, including dimensions and other characteristics, to reduce the risk of entrapment. They should also contain information on compatibility with other equipment and whether they are suitable for children or small adults.

For more information on gaps permitted by device standards, please see Appendix 2 – Bed rail dimensions in BS EN 60601-2-52 and Appendix 3 – Bed rail dimensions in BS EN 50637. Note that the values expressed in standards are primarily intended for the manufacturers of medical devices.

Selection

In all cases it is essential that the selection process follows a risk assessment considering the needs of the bed occupant.

In community care environments it is common for beds and bed rails to have been acquired from different sources. Often bed rails from unknown sources are found to be in use and in many cases they have been found to be unsuitable or unfit for purpose.

Bed rails for divan beds (domestic) are mainly of the third-party type, not tailored for one specific bed or mattress length and width, or a specific mattress density.

CASE STUDY 2 – Unsuitable combination of a bed and a bed rail

A bed rail intended for use on a domestic divan bed was used on a hospital type bed. This produced a large gap between the bottom of the bed rail and the bed when the mattress was compressed.

A child slipped feet first between the bed rail and the bed. The gap was not large enough for the child to pass completely through and the child was trapped at chest level and died from postural asphyxiation.

Image illustrating case study.

Advice – When supplied, the suitability of the installation should be checked including following the manufacturer’s instructions for use regarding compatibility with other devices.

5. Correct fitting

Fitting and use

It is essential that all bed rails can be fitted correctly to an appropriate bed base allowing safe use. Aspects to consider at the start of the fitting process will include points such as:

  • can the bed rails be fitted to the bed correctly?
  • do staff understand how to fit it properly?
  • are mounting clamps, if present, used in the correct orientation and in good condition?
  • is there a gap between the lower bar of the bed rail and the top of the mattress or does the mattress compress easily at its edge which could cause entrapment?
  • is there a gap between the bed rail and the side of the mattress, headboard or footboard that could trap the bed occupant’s head or body?
  • is the bed rail secure and robust – could it move away from the side of bed and mattress in use, creating an entrapment or fall hazard?
  • do the dimensions and overall height of the mattress(es) compromise the effectiveness of the bed rail for the particular occupant – are extra height bed rails needed?

CASE STUDY 3 – User entrapment in inappropriate gaps

Entrapment can happen between the end of the bed rail and the headboard if the gap is inappropriate. Avoid gaps over 60 mm which could be enough to cause neck entrapment.

Entrapment can also occur in the space between a poorly fitting mattress and side of the bed rail or bed rail that does not fit the bed base snugly enough.

The compressible nature of the edge of most mattresses can contribute towards the entrapment risk.

Image illustrating case study.

Advice – Assess the possible gaps between rails and other equipment, particularly in the high-risk areas shown in Figure 5 during the rail fitting process.

What to avoid

From our investigations, the MHRA has identified a number of issues that, if they had been avoided during the selection process, may have reduced the likelihood of adverse incidents occurring. For example, avoid:

  • gaps of over 60 mm between the end of the bed rail and the headboard which could be enough to cause neck entrapment.
  • gaps over 120 mm from any accessible opening between the bed rail and the mattress platform
  • using bed rails designed for a divan bed on a wooden or metal bedstead; this can create gaps which may entrap the occupant
  • using insecure fittings or designs which permit the bed rail to move away from the side of the bed or mattress, creating an entrapment hazard
  • using only one side of a pair of bed rails when the other side is against a wall if this is not specifically permitted by the manufacturer – the single rail may be insecure and move. Some manufacturers supply a mattress retainer for use with single sided bed rails which reduces this risk.
  • mattress combinations whose additional height lessens the effectiveness of the bed rail and may permit the occupant to roll over the top. Extra height bed rails are available if mattress overlays are to be used
  • mattress and bed rail combinations where the mattress edge easily compresses, introducing a vertical gap between the mattress and the bed rail.

The length, width and height of the mattress should be checked to ensure that these dimensions are within the limits specified by the bed manufacturer and do not introduce gaps that could increase the risk of entrapment. If the mattress is not the right size, the bed rails may not fit properly and create entrapment gaps. Some manufacturers may also specify the density of static mattresses.

Training

Suitable evaluation of a patient before providing a bed rail is a skill. Organisations responsible for the provision, installation and maintenance of rails should ensure that those carrying out these tasks are appropriately trained in the competent use of these devices, in the skills needed to properly conduct a risk assessment in accordance with local policy and that they understand the risks posed by this equipment.

Organisations should develop processes to ensure that staff are appropriately trained and that risk assessments are carried out and recorded to a suitable standard.

Those responsible should be aware of how and when to arrange for maintenance and to report faults. Depending on the environment, this could include care staff, family members or the bed user themselves.

Most reported injuries relating to bed rails are now from incidents that take place in community settings.

Use of bed rails in the community comes with additional challenges. There may be greater variability in available equipment, and it can be more difficult to maintain equipment appropriately than in hospitals. Those responsible for day to day care may be less aware of the serious risk that can be present with improper use of bed rails. Any subsequent changes in the patient situation and the associated risks may mean greater chance of inappropriate bed rail use.

Wherever bed rails are used to reduce fall risk, a risk assessment should be made, and the rails should be regularly assessed for suitability and for correct function. Carers should be aware of the risks, should have access to the instructions for use supplied with devices and should know when to carry out or request reassessment of the needs of the bed user.

CASE STUDY 4 – Mattress too light to keep bed rail in correct position

Some designs rely on the weight of the divan or standard mattress to keep the bed rails in position. A lighter mattress can allow the rails to move away from the side of the bed, creating an entrapment gap, or can allow the rails to fall off the bed completely.

Image illustrating case study.

Advice – Check the compatibility of any installed equipment, the suitability of this for the bed user and that all these devices are fitted correctly.

Use with children and small adults

The majority of bed rails on the market are designed to be used only with individuals over 1.46 m in height (4’ 9”), which is also the height of an average 12-year-old child. A risk assessment should always be carried out on the suitability of the bed rail for the individual child or small adult, as bar spacing and other gaps will need to be reduced.

When purchasing or making assessments of bed rails for children, seek guidance on suitable rails from the manufacturers and assess their compatibility with the size of the individual and the specific circumstances of use. A new standard for medical beds for use with children has been published: it is not yet clear how many products are available that comply with the standard (See section Standards).

It is recommended that all gaps between the rail bars should be a maximum of 60 mm.

CASE STUDY 5 – Insufficient risk assessment which failed to account for the user’s body size

A bed rail was supplied to the parents of a child being cared for in the community. No assessment of the child’s physical size was carried out to determine if an entrapment hazard existed: in this case the gap between the horizontal bars of the bed rail was too large. The child slipped between the bars and asphyxiated as a result of head entrapment.

Image illustrating case study.

Advice – Risk assessments should include an evaluation of the suitability of the equipment for the physical characteristics of the intended user.

Adjusting or profile beds

Most adjustable and profiling beds feature integral bed rails that are incorporated into the bed design or are offered as an optional accessory by the bed manufacturer. We have found they are involved in far fewer adverse incidents than the third-party type.

The bed rails will be UKCA, CE or CE UKNI marked to show they meet the requirements of the Medical Devices Regulations 2002 (2) in combination with, or as an accessory to, the bed.

Some beds have a single-piece bed rail along each side of the bed; these require care in use because when the bed profile is adjusted entrapment hazards can be created. These are not always obvious when the bed is in the horizontal position.

Split bed rails (one pair at the head end and one pair at the foot end) also require care in use because the space between the head and foot end rails may vary according to the bed profile adjustment. Therefore, on some designs, entrapment hazards may be created when the bed is adjusted to profiles other than flat.

Use the rails as instructed by the bed manufacturer.

Active mattresses, hybrid mattresses and mattress overlays

Active, dynamic or hybrid mattresses or mattress overlays may be prescribed in order to reduce the risk of pressure injury. As these will raise the resting level of the user relative to the top of the bed rail, the effective height of the rail will be reduced. In turn this may increase the risk of the bed user falling from bed. Highly compressible surfaces may also create additional entrapment hazards.

The bed, mattress and rail system should be assessed in all configurations as these risks may not be obvious in a single arrangement. The risk assessment should consider the ‘worst case’ condition in particular: for example, the effective height of the top of the bed rail with the bed plus a fully inflated active mattress, or the highest point reached when an alternating cell mattress is used.

Before and during use of specialist mattresses with bed rails, consider:

  • the reduction in the effective height of the bed rail relative to the top of the mattress may allow the occupant to roll over the top of it; extra height bed rails may be required
  • the risk of entrapment in the vertical gap between the side of the mattress and the bed rail may be increased with an easily compressible overlay and/or mattress edge
  • if the standard mattress is replaced with an air mattress or lightweight foam mattress, third party bed rail assemblies (including the mattress and bed occupant) can tip off the bed when the bed occupant rolls against the bed rail. This is because many third-party bed rails rely on the weight of a standard mattress to hold the assembly in place.

CASE STUDY 6 – Bed occupant fell over the top of the bed rails after additional equipment installed

A pressure ulcer reduction overlay was added to a bed that already had a bed rail fitted. The additional height of the combined mattress/overlay reduced the height of the bed rail. The bed occupant fell over the rail, sustaining a serious head injury.

Image illustrating case study.

Advice – Risk assessments should be revised when substantial changes to the bed system are made. Particular attention should be given when the effective height of the bed rail may be compromised.

Likewise, the use of patient turning systems for pressure relief carries similar risks of compatibility with other equipment in use and the patient themselves.

The risk assessment should consider the whole patient environment and possible interactions between any equipment that is in that environment.

Inflatable bed sides and bumpers

Inflatable or padded bed sides are not generally adjustable and may need to be used with a mattress and bed rails of particular dimensions. It is therefore important not to change the mattress or bed rails from the size or specification recommended by the manufacturer, to avoid creating entrapment gaps and instability. Inflatable rails may change shape when the bed occupant leans against them and this should be taken into account when carrying out the assessment of the risk of entrapment.

Some inflatable or padded bed sides house the mattress in its own ‘pocket’ or compartment, a feature which greatly reduces entrapment risks between the mattress and the side walls.

Inflatable bed sides need to be fully inflated to be effective. They may deflate over time so regular checks should be made to ensure this has not happened.

Care should be taken to use inflatable and padded bed sides correctly, as specified in the manufacturer’s instructions for use.

Bed rail bumpers, padded accessories or enveloping covers are primarily used to prevent impact injuries, but they can also reduce the potential for limb entrapment when securely affixed to the bed or rail, according to the instructions for use. However, bumpers that can move or compress may themselves introduce entrapment risks.

7. Maintenance

Ongoing use

Bed and bed rail devices may have a useful lifetime measured in years and might be used in various locations with many different patients. Manufacturers should specify how devices should be used, cleaned and maintained so that they remain in good working order and continue to be safe to use.

Maintenance

MHRA adverse incident investigations have revealed that some incidents with bed rails have been caused by inadequate maintenance. Bed rails should be included in planned preventative maintenance schemes.

Bed rails should be maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations in the instructions for use. Examples of common types of damage include:

  • Adjusters, clamps and fixings can wear, work loose, crack, deform or be missing completely, giving rise to unwanted free play which can increase important gaps.
  • Material fatigue can also occur. Bed occupants who rattle the bed rails can exacerbate this tendency.
  • Telescopic components can become loose or jammed, discouraging correct adjustment.
  • Plastic components can degrade due to age, exposure to light and some cleaning chemicals.
  • Poor transport and storage can also cause damage to components.
  • Duvets, blankets, sheets and valances may need to be removed to check these areas properly.

Bed rail assemblies should be traceable, for example by using the manufacturers serial number, the Unique Device Identification number (when available) or labelling with an in-house number. This will assist in ensuring that every device is regularly inspected and maintained in a satisfactory condition. Traceability also allows devices to be suitably identified should a safety issue arise, such as a manufacturer recall due to a fault. Records should be kept of inspections, repairs and maintenance completed on bed rails. Suppliers of the bed rails should be contacted for advice and replacement parts.

Bed rails found to be unsuitable or in poor condition should be withdrawn from use and appropriately destroyed. If they are kept or stored, MHRA has received incident reports of them finding their way back into use. Manufacturers should be able to advise on the expected working life of their products.

When not in use, bed rails should be stored in matched pairs in a suitable area where they will not get damaged.

CASE STUDY 7 – Bed rails in poor condition from lack of maintenance

A care home had fitted third-party bed rails to a resident’s divan bed. One of the bed rails moved away from the side of the bed, creating a gap in which the resident became trapped and died as a result.

Bed rails in poor condition from lack of maintenance (Side of bed)

On inspection, the locking mechanism to secure the bed rails against the sides of the bed (under the mattress) was missing.

Bed rails in poor condition from lack of maintenance (Under mattress)

Advice – This incident could have been prevented if appropriate installation and maintenance checks had been in place, and if users were more aware of the correct configuration of the device.

Follow the instructions for use supplied by the manufacturer. Typical aspects to check during planned maintenance include:

  • presence of rust – this can affect the ease of adjustability of telescopic tubes
  • welded joints are sound, not showing signs of cracking or failure
  • cracking of paint or coating – can point to deeper structural failure
  • flaking or peeling chrome plating – can cause lacerations
  • missing locking handles and fixing clamps, clamp pads and other components
  • loose fixings – these affect the rigidity of the assembly. Nuts should be of the self-locking type
  • free play in joints – this can point towards loose, worn or incompatible components
  • stripped threads on bed frame clamps – does not allow them to be tightened securely
  • bent or distorted components
  • damaged plastic components
  • intact labelling

The frequency of inspection should be addressed by local policy, specific to the conditions of use and the recommendations in the manufacturer’s instructions for use. Defective devices should be withdrawn and replaced, if appropriate, quickly.

For more information on this topic, refer to our publication ‘Managing Medical Devices’ (34).

8. Legislation and Standards

Health and Safety at Work Act

People responsible for making decisions on the provision of bed rails and the care of people for whom they have been provided need to be aware of their duties under relevant health and safety legislation.

The Health and Safety at Work Act (4) places duties on:

Employers and self-employed persons – to avoid exposing those not in their employment (e.g. members of the public and patients) to health and safety risks.

Employees – to take reasonable care for the health and safety of themselves and others affected by their acts, and to co-operate with their employer on health and safety obligations.

The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations

The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations (5) require that employers and the self-employed should make a suitable and sufficient assessment of the risks to the health and safety of persons not in their employment which arise out of or in connection with their undertaking.

Employers also need to ensure that all employees who are responsible for selecting, fitting, maintaining and checking bed rails have received appropriate training.

Mental Capacity Act

The Mental Capacity Act (6) protects those who may not be able to make decisions about their own care and treatment. Those that lack capacity may or may not benefit from the use of bed rails. Whenever possible, the views of the patient should be accounted for when considering the use of bed rails.

All care professionals should understand their obligations under this act, and organisations should ensure that these requirements can be implemented effectively.

The legislation in Great Britain and Northern Ireland

All products classed as medical devices in Great Britain (England, Wales and Scotland) are currently subject to the UK Medical Devices Regulations 2002 (SI 2002 No 618, as amended) (UK MDR 2002) (2). This will include many beds and bed rail systems intended for use with patients. The UK MDR 2002 details the requirements for manufacturers to meet before applying a UKCA mark on their device and placing it on the market. To do this, they must comply with the essential requirements for general medical devices (Part II of the UK MDR 2002, Annex I [as modified by Part II of Schedule 2A to the UK MDR 2002]). This includes requirements such as making sure that the design of equipment is suitable for the products intended purpose, that the device is labelled appropriately and is supplied with instructions for use (where these are necessary for the sage use of the device). The UK MDR 2002 also contains requirements for manufacturers to implement a quality management system, and maintain suitable post-market surveillance of devices. Devices which have been CE marked in accordance with applicable EU legislation will also be recognised on the Great Britain market until 30 June 2023 (7).

In Northern Ireland the requirements for medical devices are subject to the EU MDD (8) and a CE mark or CE UKNI mark must appear on the device. The EU Medical Device Regulations (2017/745) (9) will fully apply in Northern Ireland from 26 May 2021. In a similar process to the UK MDR 2002, manufacturers will have to comply with the General Safety and Performance Requirements listed in Annex I of the EU Medical Devices Regulations (2017/745).

Not all beds or fall protection equipment will be classed as medical devices. This will depend on the intended use described by the manufacturer and without a clear medical purpose the definition of a medical device may not be met. In these cases, the product should still meet the requirements imposed by general consumer protection legislation.

Standards

Manufacturers may opt to demonstrate compliance with aspects of the UK Medical Devices Regulations 2002 by making sure their products meet agreed standards. When purchasing or specifying equipment, it may be desirable to confirm what technical standards are met by the device. This should be available either in the device instructions for use or from the manufacturer themselves.

The current designated medical bed standard is:

BS EN 60601-2-52: 2010+A1:2015 “Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of medical beds”.

This standard contains requirements for the dimensions and function of medical beds intended for adults and includes information on the permissible gaps between rails and the rails and the bed frame.

A separate standard has now been published that covers beds intended for use with children (and others of small stature):

BS EN 50637:2017 “Medical electrical equipment. Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of medical beds for children”.

As this is a recent document, it may be some time before manufacturers market beds which meet this standard.

Standards such as these are primarily intended for manufacturers to demonstrate that the products they supply are suitable to be UKCA, CE or CE UKNI marked and placed on the market. The dimensions and measurements that they specify may not be appropriate to conduct in a clinical environment (for example requiring the use of tools with precise dimensions and mass) and may not assure safety if they are uncritically applied to all bed users.

Previous medical bed standards were largely replaced by BS EN 60601-2-52, but older beds may have been assessed against these earlier standards. Previous standards include:

BS EN 1970:2000 “Adjustable beds for disabled persons”.

BS EN 60601-2-38:1997 Revision 1 “Medical Electrical Equipment – Part 2. Particular requirements for the safety of electrically operated hospital beds”.

9. Adverse Incidents

An adverse incident is an event that causes, or has the potential to cause, unexpected or unwanted effects involving the safety of device users (including patients) or other persons.

Adverse incidents can be caused by:

  • shortcomings in the device itself
  • inadequate instructions for use
  • insufficient servicing and maintenance
  • locally initiated modifications or adjustments
  • inappropriate user practices, including inadequate training
  • inappropriate management procedures
  • the environment in which devices are used or stored
  • incorrect provision.

We strongly encourage everybody (patients/users/carers) to report all adverse incidents to us. By reporting to us we can:

  • collate information to identify trends in device safety and performance
  • disseminate advice to the healthcare professions to prevent adverse incidents and promote good practice for use and maintenance of devices.

Who to report to:

  • If you are member of the public and live in England, Northern Ireland Scotland or Wales you should report it via the MHRA Yellow Card scheme.
  • Healthcare professionals in England can report adverse incidents or near misses via the Yellow Card system
  • Professional users in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland should report via their local incident reporting system and/or their national incident reporting authority. You can find more information on our Report a problem with a medicine or medical device page

10. References and Bibliography

References

  1. Never Events list 2018. London; 2018.
  2. The Medical Devices Regulations 2002
  3. MHRA. Managing Medical Devices. London; 2015.
  4. Health and Safety at Work etc. Act. 1974 p. Chapter 37.
  5. The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1992. UK;
  6. Mental Capacity Act. 2005.
  7. Regulating medical devices in the UK
  8. Council Directive 93/42/EEC of 14 June 1993 concerning medical device
  9. Regulation (EU) 2017/745 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2017 on medical devices
  10. Medical devices: EU regulations for MDR and IVDR

Bibliography

Haugh J, O Flatharta T, Griffin TP, O’Keeffe ST. High frequency of potential entrapment gaps in beds in an acute hospital. Age Ageing. 2014;43(6):862–5.

Anderson O, Boshier PR, Hanna GB. Interventions designed to prevent healthcare bed-related injuries in patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;(1).

Healey FM, Cronberg A, Oliver D. Bedrail use in English and Welsh hospitals. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009;57(10):1887–91.

Healey FM, Oliver D, Milne A, Connelly JB. The effect of bedrails on falls and injury: A systematic review of clinical studies. Age Ageing. 2008;37(4):368–78.

NPSA. Bedrails; reviewing the evidence; a systematic literature review. 2007;

Appendix

Appendix 1 – Adult entrapment risk assessment checklist

Example adult entrapment risk assessment checklist.

Appendix 2 – Bed rail dimensions in BS EN 60601-2-52:2010+A1:2015 Medical Electrical Equipment. Particular requirements for basic safety and essential performance of medical beds.

DescriptionDiagram ReferenceBS EN 60601-2-52:2010Notes
Height of the top edge of the side rail above the mattress without compression1≥ 220mmWhere a speciality mattress or mattress overlay is used and the side rail does not meet ≥ 220mm a risk assessment shall be performed to assure equivalent safety
Gaps between elements within the perimeter of the side rail and between the side rail and mattress platform2< 120mm
Gap between headboard and end of side rail3< 60mmMost disadvantageous angle between headboard and side rail
Gap between foot board and end of side rail4< 60mm OR > 318mmMost disadvantageous angle between foot board and side rail
Distance between open end of side rail(s) and mattress platform5< 60mmThe gap between the open end of the side rail and headboard is not relevant to this position reference
Gap between split side rails6< 60mm OR > 318mmWhen in most disadvantageous position
Gap between side rail and mattress in ‘plan’ elevation7Perform test120mm aluminium cone is positioned between mattress and side rail to determine if gap is acceptable or not.

Note that compliance to this standard requires the use of specific measurement tools, rather than basic distance measurements alone. It is intended to be used by manufacturers. For this reason, it is recommended that end users do not use solely these measurements as the sole basis for evaluating suitability of a bed rail installation.

BS EN 60601-2-52 BS EN 60601-2-52 Full length rails gaps side view, split rails gaps side view and gaps top-down view

Appendix 3 – Bed Rail Dimensions in BS EN 50637:2017 Medical electrical equipment. Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of medical beds for children.

DescriptionDiagram ReferenceBS EN 50637:2017Notes
Fully enclosed openings within a side rail, head/foot board, mattress support platformA1<60mm
Fully enclosed opening defined by the side rail, its supports and the mattress support platformA2<60mm7
Partially enclosed opening defined by the head board, mattress support platform and side railA3<60mm
Partially enclosed opening defined by the foot board, mattress support platform and side railA4<60mmExcept when gap between side rail and foot board is >300mm
Partially enclosed opening between segmented or split side rail and the mattress supportA5<60mmExcept when gap between side rails is >300mm
Partially enclosed opening defined by lowest point of a side rail, the adjacent side rail support and mattress support platform, to the outside of the side rail supportsA6<60mm
Other openings defined by accessories (e.g. IV poles, fracture frames) and side rails, head or foot boards and or mattress support platform. Not shown in figures.A<60mm
Distance between mattress support platform and the lowest point of the side rail outside the side rail support AND The angle between the side rail and mattress support platform at the range of the mattress height defined by the manufacturer ± 2 cmB<40mm AND Angle between mattress support platform and side rail interface >75° over the entire range of mattress heights from minimum recommended height minus 2 cm to the maximum recommended mattress height plus 2 cm.
Gap between head board and adjacent side railC1<40mm
Gap between segmented or split side rails with both side rails raisedC2<40mm OR >300mm
For a gap >300mm: the gap shall be >300mm or <400mm for the entire vertical distance
For all medical beds except junior beds: gap between side rail and foot board. Other openings defined by accessories (e.g. IV poles, fracture frames etc.) and side rails, head board, foot board, and or mattress platformC3<40mm
For junior beds: gap between side rail and foot board. Other openings defined by accessories (e.g. IV poles, fracture frames etc.) and side rails, head board, foot board, and or mattress platformC4<40mm OR >300mm
For a gap >300mm: the gap shall be >300mm or <400mm for the entire vertical distance
Region defined by side rail/head board/foot board and the mattress for cribs and cotsD1Perform testCone tool does not sink below the mattress surface by 50% or more of its 60mm diameter.
Region defined by the side rail/head/foot board and the mattress for junior beds and oversize cotsD2Perform test OR Gap between side rail/head/foot board and mattress <30mm
Cone tool does not sink below the mattress surface by 50% or more of its 60mm diameter.

Note that 50637:2017 defines different sized beds: cots, oversized cots, cribs and junior beds. Please see the text of the standard for full definitions or contact the manufacturer of a particular bed in your control that complies with this standard.

Compliance to this standard requires the use of specific measurement tools, rather than basic distance measurements alone. It is intended to be used by manufacturers. For this reason, it is recommended that end users do not use solely these measurements as the sole basis for evaluating suitability of a bed rail installation.

BS EN 50637 rail gaps

Источник: https://www.gov.uk/guidance/bed-rails-management-and-safe-use
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  • Amazon Connect now supports sharing attachments in chat

    Posted On: Dec 21, 2020

    You can now send attachments directly through Amazon Connect Chat, making it easier than ever to resolve your customers’ support needs. For example, an agent can send a copy of a recent hotel invoice or a customer can share a photo of a damaged product. Attachments are included in the chat transcript, to help ensure the full context from the conversation is available if a contact is transferred to another agent. The files are also stored in your S3 bucket to allow access from other systems such as customer relationship management or case management systems. You can turn attachments on in the AWS console with a couple of clicks.

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  • Amazon Connect CTI Adapter for Salesforce now supports Contact Lens

    Posted On: Dec 21, 2020

    The Amazon Connect Computer Telephony Integration (CTI) Adapter for Salesforce v5.9 now supports automatically adding transcripts and insights from Contact Lens for Amazon Connect to customer records and cases in Salesforce Service Cloud. Amazon Connect customers have enjoyed being able to gain valuable insights from their call recordings such as customer sentiment, agent sentiment, sentiment change, key phrase detection, categorization tagging, and more simply by enabling Contact Lens in their contact flows. With the v5.9 release of the Amazon Connect CTI adapter for Salesforce, Connect users can now deliver those same insights, including the full call transcript, directly to the end-customer’s record or case history in Salesforce. There are no technical skills required, users of the CTI adapter simply make the configuration choice to enable this feature and a transcript and insights will be delivered to the customer’s Salesforce environment every time a call is completed and the recording is analyzed by Contact Lens.

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  • You now can use PartiQL with NoSQL Workbench to query, insert, update, and delete table data in Amazon DynamoDB

    Posted On: Dec 21, 2020

    You now can use PartiQL with NoSQL Workbench to run SQL-compatible queries on your DynamoDB data. PartiQL makes it easier to interact with DynamoDB, and now you can use PartiQL to query, insert, update, and delete table data by using NoSQL Workbench.  

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  • PartiQL for DynamoDB now is supported in 23 AWS Regions

    Posted On: Dec 21, 2020

    PartiQL—a SQL-compatible query language—for Amazon DynamoDB is now supported in the following 23 AWS Regions: US East (N. Virginia), US East (Ohio), US West (Oregon), US West (N. California), Canada (Montreal), South America (Sao Paulo), Europe (Ireland), Europe (Frankfurt), Europe (London), Europe (Milan), Europe (Paris), Europe (Stockholm), Africa (Cape Town), Asia Pacific (Hong Kong), Asia Pacific (Mumbai), Asia Pacific (Osaka-Local), Asia Pacific (Seoul), Asia Pacific (Singapore), Asia Pacific (Sydney), Asia Pacific (Tokyo), China (Beijing), China (Ningxia), and Middle East (Bahrain).  

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  • AWS Database Migration Service now supports Amazon DocumentDB 4.0 as a source

    Posted On: Dec 21, 2020

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  • AWS CodeBuild is now available in the Africa (Cape Town) Region

    Posted On: Dec 21, 2020

    AWS CodeBuild is now available in the Africa (Cape Town) Region. AWS CodeBuild is a fully managed continuous integration service that compiles source code, runs tests, and produces software packages that are ready to deploy. With CodeBuild, you don’t need to provision, manage, and scale your own build servers. CodeBuild scales continuously and processes multiple builds concurrently, so your builds are not left waiting in a queue. You can get started quickly by using prepackaged build environments, or you can create custom build environments that use your own build tools. With CodeBuild, you are charged by the minute for the compute resources you use.

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  • Amazon Transcribe Medical now supports both streaming and batch transcription of multi-channel audio

    Posted On: Dec 21, 2020

    Amazon Transcribe Medical is a HIPAA-eligible automatic speech recognition (ASR) service that makes it easy for developers to add speech-to-text capabilities to their healthcare and life science applications. Starting today, you can use the new Channel Identification feature to transcribe the speech from both live audio streams or static audio files that contain multiple audio channels. With Channel Identification, you can process audio from multiple channel to generate a single transcript of the conversation complete with channel labels.  

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  • New IAM condition keys for Amazon S3 limit requests to buckets owned by specific AWS accounts, and to specific TLS versions

    Posted On: Dec 21, 2020

    The s3:ResourceAccount and s3:TLSVersion IAM condition keys help you write simple policies that restrict access to your buckets based on the AWS Account ID of the bucket owner, or by the TLS Version used by the client.

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  • Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) Now supports Tag on Create for Elastic IP addresses

    Posted On: Dec 21, 2020

    You can now add tags to your Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) Elastic IP addresses while creating the resource. Tags are simple key-value pairs that you can assign to Elastic IP addresses to easily organize, search, identify, and control access using Identity and Access Manager (IAM) policies. By tagging at the time of creation you can eliminate the need to run custom tagging scripts after Elastic IP addresses creation. 

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  • Porting Assistant for .NET supports automated code translation

    Posted On: Dec 21, 2020

    Porting Assistant for .NET now supports automated code translation. In addition to identifying incompatibilities in the source code, Porting assistant can now automatically make changes to the source code to address commonly found incompatibilities with .NET Core. For example, when Porting Assistant detects the usage of Entity Framework in an application, it automatically adds EF Core as a dependency, update the namespaces in the source code, and add applicable stubs to allow developers to quickly port the application.

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  • AWS DeepComposer launches new learning capsule that dives deep into Transformer models

    Posted On: Dec 21, 2020

    Today, we are excited to release a new learning capsule that dives deep into Transformer models. To learn the concepts behind generative AI, developers can use easy-to-consume, bite-sized learning capsules in the AWS DeepComposer console. In this new learning capsule, developers will learn about Transformer models which use attention layers to capture dependencies non-sequentially. Transformers are a machine learning architecture model designed to handle sequential data. By building a transformer-based model that understands musical motifs, or sequences, developers can create a model that can generate new music based on a series of sequences learned during training. Get started with creating a composition using the Transformers technique in the AWS DeepComposer Music studio.

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  • AWS Load Balancer Controller version 2.1 now available with support for additional ELB configurations

    Posted On: Dec 21, 2020

    The AWS Load Balancer Controller provides a Kubernetes native way to configure and manage Elastic Load Balancers that route traffic to applications running in Kubernetes clusters. Elastic Load Balancing offers multiple load balancers that all feature the high availability, automatic scaling, and robust security necessary to help make your applications fault tolerant.

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  • Apache Kafka client resiliency testing made easier with an Amazon MSK reboot broker API

    Posted On: Dec 21, 2020

    You can now reboot individual brokers within your Amazon Managed Streaming for Apache Kafka (Amazon MSK) cluster by using the Reboot Broker API. The Reboot Broker API enables you to test the resiliency of your data producers and consumers by simulating MSK service maintenance such as automated patching or the effect a version upgrade has on a MSK broker. Visit the Amazon MSK API Reference for information on how to use this API. 

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  • AWS Pricing Calculator now supports Windows Server and SQL Server workload cost estimates

    Posted On: Dec 21, 2020

    AWS Pricing Calculator now supports Windows Server and SQL Server workload compute cost estimates. The workload estimate now accounts for Microsoft licensing. The Windows Server and SQL Server on Amazon EC2 calculator provides a selection of licensing options such as AWS-provided licenses with License Included (LI) offerings and customers’ existing licenses with bring your own license (BYOL) offerings for optimal cost savings. It also identifies suitable cloud tenancy and a cost-saving pricing model, based on licensing and infrastructure inputs.

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  • Now launch Amazon SageMaker Studio Notebooks backed by Spark in Amazon EMR

    Posted On: Dec 21, 2020

    Amazon SageMaker Studio is the first fully integrated development environment (IDE) for machine learning. With a single click, data scientists and developers can quickly spin up SageMaker Studio notebooks to explore and prepare datasets to build, train and deploy machine learning models in a single pane of glass. Amazon EMR is a web service that makes it easy to quickly and cost-effectively process vast amounts of data. Starting today, customers can use Studio notebooks to easily and securely connect to Amazon EMR clusters and prepare vast amounts of data for analysis and reporting, model training, or inference. 

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  • Amazon AppFlow now provides data integration with Upsolver

    Posted On: Dec 21, 2020

    Amazon AppFlow, a fully managed data integration service that enables customers to securely transfer data between AWS services and cloud applications, added Upsolver as a destination. You can now use Amazon AppFlow to configure data flows with Upsolver as the destination. Upsolver is a data lake ETL platform that stores data on the cloud, applies advanced transformations, and distributes it to multiple destinations.

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  • EC2 Hibernation feature is now available in AWS GovCloud (US) Regions

    Posted On: Dec 21, 2020

    The EC2 Hibernation feature is now available in the AWS GovCloud (US) Regions. Hibernation gives you the ability to launch EC2 instances, set them up as desired, hibernate them, and then quickly bring them back to life when you need them. Applications pick up exactly where they left off instead of rebuilding their memory footprint. By using Hibernation, you can maintain a fleet of pre-warmed instances to get to a productive state faster without modifying your existing applications.

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  • Amazon Macie now available in AWS Africa (Cape Town), Europe (Milan), and Middle East (Bahrain) Regions

    Posted On: Dec 21, 2020

    Amazon Macie is now available in the AWS Africa (Cape Town), Europe (Milan), and Middle East (Bahrain) Regions. You can now discover sensitive data stored in these regions to help protect your AWS workloads and data in Amazon S3.

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  • AWS Systems Manager now enables advanced flow control for Automation runbook executions

    Posted On: Dec 21, 2020

    AWS Systems Manager Automation now lets you define the actions to perform when an operator cancels the execution of a runbook. Using this feature, you can automatically roll back any changes or perform necessary cleanups when the execution of a runbook is canceled.

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  • Amazon MQ now supports ActiveMQ version 5.15.14

    Posted On: Dec 21, 2020

    You can now launch Apache ActiveMQ 5.15.14 brokers on Amazon MQ. This patch update to ActiveMQ contains several fixes and new features compared to the previously supported version, ActiveMQ 5.15.13.

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  • Announcing the General Availability of Amazon Corretto 11 for Linux on ARM32 and for Windows on x86 (32-bit)

    Posted On: Dec 21, 2020

    Amazon Corretto11 on ARM32 for Linux Platforms and x86 (32-bit) on Windows are now Generally Available. With our ARM32 build, you can run Corretto 11 on Linux distributions on 32bit ARMv7 hardware. Our x86 on Windows build will run on the same supported versions of Windows and will allow usage of 32-bit libraries. These are full-featured, fully supported JDK11 builds. You can report any issues on our GitHub repo at https://github.com/corretto.

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  • Multi-Attach support now available on Amazon EBS Provisioned IOPS volume type, io2

    Posted On: Dec 21, 2020

    Multi-Attach is now available on Amazon EBS Provisioned IOPS volume type, io2. Launched in August 2020, io2 is the newest generation of our Provisioned IOPS volume type designed for 99.999% durability (100x io1) and 500:1 IOPS:GiB (10x io1). Multi-Attach lets you share access to an EBS data volume between up to 16 Nitro-based EC2 instances within the same Availability Zone (AZ). Each attached instance has full read and write permission to the shared volume. Multi-Attach is intended to make it easier to achieve higher application availability for customers that want to deploy applications that manage storage consistency from multiple writers in shared storage infrastructure.

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  • Announcing the availability of AWS Outposts Private Connectivity

    Posted On: Dec 21, 2020

    You can now connect your on-premises AWS Outposts infrastructure privately over Direct Connect to services running in the AWS region using AWS Outposts Private Connectivity.  

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  • Amazon Managed Blockchain now supports Ethereum (Preview)

    Posted On: Dec 21, 2020

    Amazon Managed Blockchain now supports Ethereum in preview. Ethereum is a popular decentralized blockchain platform that establishes a peer-to-peer network allowing participants to transact without a trusted central authority. AWS customers can easily provision Ethereum nodes in minutes, and connect to the public Ethereum main network and test networks such as Rinkeby and Ropsten. With Amazon Managed Blockchain, customers get secure networking, fast and reliable syncs to the Ethereum blockchain, durable elastic storage for ledger data, encryption at rest and transport, and secure access to the network via standard open-source Ethereum APIs. Amazon Managed Blockchain automatically scales the storage, monitors node health, replaces unhealthy nodes, and automates Ethereum software upgrades, improving the availability of customers’ Ethereum infrastructure.

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  • AWS Snow Family now supports the Amazon Linux 2 operating system

    Posted On: Dec 21, 2020

    AWS Snow Family now supports the Amazon Linux 2 operating system, enabling you to run your Amazon Linux 2-based workloads at the edge on AWS Snowcone, AWS Snowball Edge Compute Optimized, and AWS Snowball Edge Storage Optimized devices. Amazon Linux 2 provides a secure, stable, and high performance execution environment to develop and run cloud and enterprise applications. With Amazon Linux 2 , you get an application environment that offers long term support with access to the latest innovations in the Linux ecosystem. Amazon Linux 2 is provided at no additional charge.

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  • AWS Data Exchange data sets now easily available for visual transformation using AWS Glue DataBrew via console integration

    Posted On: Dec 18, 2020

    AWS Glue DataBrew today announced integration of third-party data sets available via AWS Data Exchange directly in the AWS Glue DataBrew console. Customers who use AWS Data Exchange to acquire third-party data can now easily view their entitled third-party data in the AWS Glue DataBrew console and then, visually explore , combine, clean and transform the data to make it ready for analysis. Similarly, these customers can easily export their entitled third-party data sets directly from the AWS Data Exchange console as an AWS Glue DataBrew dataset and start visually transforming the data.  

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  • AWS Data Exchange now supports filtered views for provider products and data sets

    Posted On: Dec 18, 2020

    Data providers using the AWS Data Exchange console can now see filtered views of their products and owned data sets. Providers now have the ability to filter their products in the console by name, short description, publishing status, and subscriber visibility. They can also filter their owned data sets by name, data set ID, and data set ARN. This filtering capability is additionally surfaced in the process of adding data sets to new or existing products. For providers with many data sets and products, these console features facilitate faster product creation and management. 

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  • Amazon Chime now supports joining meetings from Echo Show 8

    Posted On: Dec 18, 2020

    Customers can now join Amazon Chime meetings on Echo Show 8. We recommend customers simply link their calendar using the Alexa app. Once linked, customers can say, “Alexa, join the Amazon Chime meeting” or “Alexa, join the meeting” at the time of the meeting to enjoy the meeting experience on their Echo Show 8. If customers do not wish to link their calendars, they can also speak the Amazon Chime meeting ID at the time of the meeting to join the meeting.  

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  • Join Zoom meetings with Alexa on Echo Show 8

    Posted On: Dec 18, 2020

    Starting today, Echo Show 8 customers can use Alexa to join Zoom meetings on a dedicated device, by simply saying “Alexa, join my Zoom meeting.” No setup is required. Alexa will ask for the meeting ID and Passcode. You can also join a meeting more seamlessly by linking your Microsoft, Google, or Apple calendar account via the Alexa app. After saying “Join my Zoom meeting” Alexa will confirm the meeting title if details are included in the invite and then join the meeting. Alexa won’t ask for additional information.

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  • Amazon AppFlow now stores credentials in customers’ AWS Secrets Manager account

    Posted On: Dec 18, 2020

    Amazon AppFlow, a fully managed integration service that enables customers to securely transfer data between AWS services and cloud applications, now stores encrypted credentials used to connect to flow sources and destination applications including OAuth tokens, Application and API keys, and passwords in customers’ own AWS Secrets Manager account. Previously, AppFlow was storing these encrypted credentials in the AWS Secrets Manager account owned by the Amazon AppFlow service.

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  • Software providers on AWS Marketplace can now use the self-service management portal to update their Container products

    Posted On: Dec 18, 2020

    Today, AWS Marketplace announced a new and easier self-service experience for independent software vendors (ISVs) to add new versions and update product information on their container product listings. AWS Marketplace is consistently improving the way that sellers can keep their products up-to-date. With this release, ISVs with container products can now rapidly update and adjust their listing on their own. AWS Marketplace has made it easier for ISVs to publish new container images and Helm charts by hosting dedicated ECR repositories for their product.

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  • Introducing Distributed Load Testing v1.2

    Posted On: Dec 18, 2020

    Distributed Load Testing on AWS helps you easily simulate thousands of users connecting to your application so that you can better understand your application performance under load. The solution launches and configures containers on AWS Fargate to generate a specified number of transactions per second without having to provision servers.

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  • AWS CloudFormation StackSets is now available in Africa (Cape Town), EU (Milan), and Middle East (Bahrain) Regions

    Posted On: Dec 18, 2020

    AWS CloudFormation has expanded the availability of StackSets to Africa (Cape Town), EU (Milan), and Middle East (Bahrain). StackSets is a CloudFormation feature that allows you to centrally manage deployment of cloud resources to multiple AWS accounts and Regions in a single operation. StackSets is also integrated with AWS Organizations so you can take advantage of automatic deployments whenever an account enters an organization. 

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  • Amazon Machine Image copy limits increased to 100 images per destination Region

    Posted On: Dec 18, 2020

    Amazon EC2 now allows you to copy up to 100 Amazon Machine Images (AMIs) concurrently per destination region per account, an increase from the previous limit of 50 concurrent copies. This increase helps reduce the throttling exceptions and propagation limitations faced while copying multiple AMIs across regions at the same time. You can use CopyImage API to copy an AMI from one region to another.  

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  • Announcing new Amazon EC2 C6gn instances powered by AWS Graviton2 processors with 100 Gbps networking

    Posted On: Dec 18, 2020

    Starting today, Amazon EC2 C6gn instances powered by Arm-based AWS Graviton2 processors and featuring up to 100 Gbps network bandwidth are generally available. Amazon EC2 C6gn instances deliver up to 40% better price-performance over C5n instances for applications requiring high network bandwidth such as high performance computing (HPC), network appliances, data lakes and data analytics.

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  • Amazon SageMaker Autopilot adds Deep Learning Models

    Posted On: Dec 18, 2020

    Amazon SageMaker Autopilot, which makes it easy to create highly accurate machine learning (ML) models without requiring any ML expertise, now includes deep learning models, enabling you to quickly and accurately make predictions in a wide variety of deep learning applications. 

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  • AWS Lambda now supports SASL/SCRAM authentication for functions triggered from Amazon MSK

    Posted On: Dec 18, 2020

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  • Amazon Connect supports Amazon Lex chatbots with Latin American Spanish and German

    Posted On: Dec 17, 2020

    You can now configure your Amazon Lex chatbot to improve engagement with customers who speak Latin American Spanish or German. Amazon Lex allows you to create intelligent conversational chatbots that can be used with Amazon Connect to automate high volume interactions without compromising customer experience. Customers can perform tasks such as changing a password, requesting a balance on an account, or scheduling an appointment using natural conversational language. Customers can say things like “I need help with my device” instead of having to listen through and remember a list of options like press 1 for sales, or press 2 for appointments.  

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  • Amazon FSx now supports on-premises access from additional IP address ranges

    Posted On: Dec 17, 2020

    Amazon FSx, a fully managed service that makes it easy to launch and run feature-rich and highly-performant file systems, today announced that customers can now access Amazon FSx for Windows File Server and Amazon FSx for Lustre file systems from non-RFC1918 IP addresses. Starting today, Amazon FSx for Windows File Server customers can now also join their file systems to on-premises Active Directories with non-RFC1918 IP addresses. 

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  • Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC) for the AWS Key Management Service

    Posted On: Dec 17, 2020

    Today, the AWS Key Management Service (KMS) is announcing availability for attribute-based access control (ABAC) to allow the use of tags and aliases in policy conditions for IAM policies and AWS KMS key policies. Attribute-based access control is an authorization strategy that defines permissions based on tags which can be attached to users and AWS resources. KMS additionally supports the use of key aliases in policy conditions.

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  • EC2 Image Builder now supports container images

    Posted On: Dec 17, 2020

    Customers of EC2 Image Builder can now build and test container images compliant with the Open Container Initiative (OCI) specification. As a result, EC2 Image Builder can be used to automate the building of both – Virtual Machine and container images with similar workflows.

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  • Amazon SQS Now Supports a High Throughput Mode for FIFO Queues (Preview)

    Posted On: Dec 17, 2020

    Amazon SQS now supports a preview of a high throughput mode for FIFO queues, allowing you to process up to 3000 messages per second per API action. This is a tenfold increase compared to current SQS FIFO queue throughput quota.

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  • AWS Cloud Map is now available in the AWS Africa (Cape Town) and Europe (Milan) AWS Regions

    Posted On: Dec 17, 2020

    AWS Cloud Map is now available in the AWS Africa (Cape Town) and Europe (Milan) AWS Regions.  

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  • AWS Well-Architected Guidance Engine now available in AWS Control Tower

    Posted On: Dec 17, 2020

    Today we are announcing AWS Well-Architected Guidance Engine (WAGE), a feature in the AWS Management Console that helps you determine next steps, best practices, and make choices so you can make the most of AWS. WAGE enables you to receive prescriptive guidance in the console based on questions and answers you provide. Each WAGE scenario is similar to a decision tree, and built and reviewed by AWS experts.

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  • AWS Nitro Enclaves is now available in 6 additional regions

    Posted On: Dec 17, 2020

    Starting today, AWS Nitro Enclaves and ACM for Nitro Enclaves are available in Africa (Cape Town), Asia Pacific (Seoul), Canada (Central), Europe (Milan), Middle East (Bahrain), and US West (N. California). 

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  • Introducing Amazon SageMaker ml.P4d instances for highest performance ML training in the cloud

    Posted On: Dec 17, 2020

    Amazon SageMaker now supports ml.p4d instances, the next generation of GPU-based instances that provide the best performance for machine learning (ML) training in the cloud for applications such as natural language processing, object detection and classification, seismic analysis, genomics research, and more.  

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  • Announcing Amazon Route 53 support for DNSSEC

    Posted On: Dec 17, 2020

    Today, Amazon Web Services announced the launch of Domain Name System Security Extensions (DNSSEC) for Amazon Route 53. You can now enable DNSSEC signing for all existing and new public hosted zones, and enable DNSSEC validation for Amazon Route 53 Resolver. Amazon Route 53 DNSSEC provides data origin authentication and data integrity verification for DNS and can help customers meet compliance mandates, such as FedRAMP.

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  • Amazon Data Lifecycle Manager now automates copying EBS snapshots across accounts

    Posted On: Dec 17, 2020

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  • Cost & Usage Report Now Available to Member (Linked) Accounts

    Posted On: Dec 16, 2020

    Member accounts in an AWS Organization can now set-up Cost & Usage Reports containing the specific cost and usage data for just their account. This will provide member account-level insights for cost optimization initiatives and save management account holders' time from having to generate detailed cost and usage data for their member accounts.

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  • Amazon FSx is now available in the AWS GovCloud (US) Regions

    Posted On: Dec 16, 2020

    Amazon FSx, a fully managed service that makes it easy to launch and run feature-rich and highly-performant file systems, is now available in the AWS GovCloud (US) Regions. With Amazon FSx, customers can leverage the rich feature sets and fast performance of widely-used open source and commercially-licensed file systems, while avoiding time-consuming administrative tasks like hardware provisioning, software configuration, patching, and backups.

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  • APIs now available for the AWS Well-Architected Tool

    Posted On: Dec 16, 2020

    The AWS Well-Architected Tool now offers APIs that allow customers and APN partners to extend AWS Well-Architected functionality, best practices, measurements, and learnings into their existing architecture governance processes, applications, and workflows.  

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  • Three new digital courses for AWS Partners

    Posted On: Dec 16, 2020

    AWS Training and Certification is excited to announce the availability of three new digital courses for AWS Partners.

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  • AWS Launch Wizard now supports SAP application software installation

    Posted On: Dec 16, 2020

    AWS Launch Wizard now enables you to install SAP application software as part of the deployment process, with support for SAP NetWeaver on HANA, SAP S/4HANA, and SAP BW/4HANA.

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  • AWS announces Amazon Location Service (Preview)

    Posted On: Dec 16, 2020

    Amazon Location Service is a fully managed service that helps developers easily add location data to their applications without sacrificing data security and user privacy. The service is now in preview. With Amazon Location, you can build a wide range of location-enabled applications for use cases such as asset tracking, geomarketing, and delivery management. 

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  • AWS Cost Anomaly Detection is now generally available

    Posted On: Dec 16, 2020

    AWS Cost Anomaly Detection is a free service that monitors your spending patterns to detect anomalous spend and provide root cause analysis. It helps customers to minimize cost surprises and enhance cost controls.  

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  • Announcing AWS IoT Device Defender ML Detect public preview

    Posted On: Dec 15, 2020

    Today, we are announcing the public preview of ML Detect, a new feature of AWS IoT Device Defender that automatically detects device-level operational and security anomalies across your fleet by learning from past data. Today, customers can use AWS IoT Device Defender’s Rules Detect to manually set static alarms. ML Detect makes this easier by automatically learning your fleet’s expected behavior using machine learning so that you don’t need an in-depth understanding of how your devices behave across a range of metrics to get started, like messages sent, disconnect frequency, and bytes in/out. Also, ML Detect automatically updates the expected behavior based on new data trends caused by seasonality and other changing factors. When an anomaly is detected, you can respond by choosing a built-in mitigation action like quarantining a device. 

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  • AWS announces Amazon Managed Service for Prometheus for container monitoring

    Posted On: Dec 15, 2020

    Amazon Managed Service for Prometheus (AMP) is a new, fully managed Prometheus-compatible monitoring service that makes it easy to monitor containerized applications at scale. The Cloud Native Computing Foundation’s Prometheus project is a popular open source and alerting monitoring solution optimized for container environments.  

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  • Introducing AWS CloudShell

    Posted On: Dec 15, 2020

    AWS CloudShell is a browser-based shell available from the AWS Management Console. Once logged into the Management Console, starting a CloudShell session gives customers immediate access to a Amazon Linux 2 environment with the AWS Command Line Interface (CLI) pre-installed and pre-authenticated using the same credentials used to login to the console. CloudShell makes it easy to securely manage, interact with, and explore your resources from the command line. Common tools and AWS CLIs are pre-installed and you can install other tools as needed by using the provided root access. Bash, zsh, and PowerShell are all included so you can choose your favorite shell.

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  • AWS Personal Health Dashboard now supports organization-wide event aggregation

    Posted On: Dec 15, 2020

    For customers using AWS Organizations, the AWS Personal Health Dashboard now provides an all-up view of Health events occurring across your organization. From a single aggregated dashboard, you can learn about maintenance events, security vulnerabilities, and AWS service degredations affecting any account in your AWS organization. Organizational View for the Personal Health Dashboard comes at no additional cost and does not require a premium AWS Support plan. 

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  • Introducing AWS IoT Core for LoRaWAN: connect and manage LoRaWAN devices at scale easily and cost-effectively

    Posted On: Dec 15, 2020

    We are thrilled to announce AWS IoT Core for LoRaWAN, a fully managed capability that allows AWS IoT Core customers to connect and manage wireless devices that use low-power long-range wide area network (LoRaWAN) connectivity with the AWS cloud. Using AWS IoT Core, enterprises can now setup a private LoRaWAN network by connecting their own LoRaWAN devices and gateways to the AWS cloud - without developing or operating a LoRaWAN Network Server (LNS). This allows customers to eliminate the undifferentiated work and operational overhead of managing an LNS, and enables them to quickly connect and secure LoRaWAN device fleets at scale. AWS IoT Core for LoRaWAN also makes it easy to act on the data from connected devices using AWS services for processing, storage, analytics, or machine learning. With built-in integration with AWS IoT Rules Engine, AWS IoT Core for LoRaWAN automatically routes messages from connected LoRaWAN devices to customer defined rules, thus accelerating IoT application development. 

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  • AWS IoT Core Device Advisor now available in preview

    Posted On: Dec 15, 2020

    AWS IoT Core Device Advisor, a fully managed cloud-based test capability for validating IoT devices, is now available in preview. Previously, device developers had to build their own test infrastructure to confirm if their IoT devices could reliably and securely interoperate with AWS IoT Core. This adds to the cost of development and testing, and slows down completion of their IoT projects. Now, developers can use pre-built tests provided by Device Advisor to validate their IoT devices for reliable and secure connectivity with AWS IoT Core. Developers can connect their devices to an IoT Device Advisor test endpoint in the AWS cloud with just a few clicks, and start testing their devices. Developers can identify common device software issues such as IoT devices being unable to reconnect by using the pre-built test for MQTT reconnect. Developers can get detailed logs in Amazon CloudWatch to troubleshoot and fix the issues during their development and testing cycles before deploying their devices in production. Device Advisor also provides a signed qualification report which can be used by hardware partners to qualify their devices for inclusion in the AWS Partner Device Catalog.

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  • Deploy Microsoft Active Directory Infrastructure on Amazon EC2 using AWS Launch Wizard

    Posted On: Dec 15, 2020

    You can now use AWS Launch Wizard to deploy new Active Directory (AD) infrastructure on Amazon EC2, or add domain controllers to an existing Active Directory hosted on Amazon EC2 or on-premises. AWS Launch Wizard uses AWS Well-Architected Framework to guide you through setting up your deployment on environment which includes setting up Amazon Virtual Private Clouds (Amazon VPCs), security groups, and AWS Identity and Access Management (AWS IAM) roles. AWS Launch Wizard reduces the time that it takes to set up an Active Directory infrastructure and deploy self-managed domain controllers.  

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  • AWS IoT Core adds the ability to deliver data to Apache Kafka clusters

    Posted On: Dec 15, 2020

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  • Introducing AWS IoT EduKit

    Posted On: Dec 15, 2020

    AWS introduces AWS IoT EduKit, an easy way to learn to build IoT applications using AWS services through a prescriptive learning program. AWS IoT EduKit helps developers – from students to experienced engineers and professionals – receive hands-on experience building end-to-end IoT applications by combining a reference hardware kit with a set of easy to follow guides and example code. To learn more, please visit AWS IoT EduKit.

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  • Introducing AWS IoT SiteWise plugin for Grafana

    Posted On: Dec 15, 2020

    Today, AWS and Grafana Labs launched the AWS IoT SiteWise plugin for Grafana. This plugin lets you easily visualize your AWS IoT SiteWise data in your Grafana dashboards. With this plugin, you can easily visualize and monitor your equipment data in near-real time using the wide range of visualization options in Grafana dashboards. You can also easily combine data from multiple sources (e.g., AWS IoT SiteWise, Amazon Timestream, Amazon CloudWatch) and monitor them all using a single Grafana dashboard. You can also embed these Grafana dashboards into your custom applications. 

    Read More »

  • AWS IoT SiteWise launches support for Modbus TCP and EtherNet/IP protocols with enhancements to OPC-UA data ingestion

    Posted On: Dec 15, 2020

    AWS IoT SiteWise now supports data ingestion using ModBus TCP and EtherNet/IP (EIP) protocols. You can do so by adding Modbus or EIP devices as data sources to your SiteWise Gateway. For data ingestion from OPC-UA data sources, you can now customize the scan mode and scan rate along with specifying deadbands. Lastly, you can provide a custom AWS IoT Greengrass StreamManager stream as a destination for protocol data.

    Read More »

  • Introducing AWS Systems Manager Fleet Manager

    Posted On: Dec 15, 2020

    Today, AWS announces Fleet Manager, a new capability in AWS Systems Manager that helps you streamline and scale your remote server management process. Fleet Manager provides you with visual tools to manage your Windows, Linux, and macOS servers, so you can easily perform common administrator tasks for your fleet running on AWS and on-premises, without needing to remotely connect to these servers. 

    Read More »

  • Announcing Amazon Sidewalk Integration for AWS IoT Core

    Posted On: Dec 15, 2020

    Amazon Sidewalk is a shared network that helps devices work better through better connectivity options. Today, we are excited to announce the general availability of Amazon Sidewalk Integration for AWS IoT Core to help device manufacturers easily onboard their Sidewalk device fleet with AWS IoT Core. Amazon Sidewalk has been designed to support a wide range of customer devices like locating pets or valuables, to smart home security and lighting control, to remote diagnostics for appliances and tools.  

    Read More »

  • AWS IoT Device Management introduces Fleet Hub, a new, easy way to monitor and interact with IoT device fleets

    Posted On: Dec 15, 2020

    Today, AWS IoT is announcing Fleet Hub for AWS IoT Device Management (preview). The new feature enables customers to easily create a fully managed web application to view and interact with their device fleets to monitor fleet and device health, respond to alarms, take remote actions, and reduce time for troubleshooting. 

    Read More »

  • Announcing AWS IoT SiteWise Edge (Preview), a new capability of AWS IoT SiteWise to collect, process, and monitor industrial equipment data on-premises

    Posted On: Dec 15, 2020

    Today, we are announcing AWS IoT SiteWise Edge (Preview), a new feature of AWS IoT SiteWise providing software that runs on-premises at industrial sites and makes it easy to collect, process, and monitor equipment data locally before sending the data to AWS Cloud destinations. SiteWise Edge is installed on local hardware such as third-party industrial gateways and computers, or on AWS Outposts and AWS Snow Family compute devices. 

    Read More »

  • Introducing AWS Systems Manager Change Manager

    Posted On: Dec 15, 2020

    Today, AWS announces Change Manager, a new change management feature of AWS Systems Manager. Change Manager simplifies the way you can request, approve, implement, and report on operational changes to your application configuration and infrastructure on AWS and on-premises. With Change Manager, you can use built-in change management best practices based on Amazon’s 20+ years of operational experience to more safely make operational changes.

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  • AWS IoT Device Defender adds support for custom metrics

    Posted On: Dec 15, 2020

    You can now use AWS IoT Device Defender to monitor operational health metrics that are unique to your fleet or use case. For example, you could define a new metric to monitor the memory usage or CPU usage on your devices. After your devices start sending these metrics to the cloud, you can monitor the metrics and trigger alarms when memory usage exceeds expected ranges or when CPU usage exceeds a statistically significant threshold. The alerts can be viewed in the Device Defender console or shared through AWS Simple Notification Service (SNS). 

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  • Announcing support for Alarms (Preview) in AWS IoT Events and AWS IoT SiteWise

    Posted On: Dec 15, 2020

    We are excited to announce Alarms, a new feature (currently in preview) in AWS IoT Events that allows you to set up, visualize and manage rule-based alerts for devices, equipment, and processes. You can now receive alerts via SMS or email in near-real time when equipment data breaches thresholds, allowing operations teams to take timely actions to reduce unplanned downtime.  

    Read More »

  • AWS Lambda now supports self-managed Apache Kafka as an event source

    Posted On: Dec 15, 2020

    AWS Lambda now allows customers to build applications that can be triggered by messages in an Apache Kafka cluster hosted on any infrastructure. Customers can keep their existing Apache Kafka cluster as-is, and quickly and easily build Kafka consumer applications with Lambda without needing to worry about provisioning or managing servers.  

    Read More »

  • Announcing FreeRTOS Long Term Support

    Posted On: Dec 15, 2020

    Today, we are announcing the first FreeRTOS Long Term Support (LTS) release. With this release, developers can rely on a FreeRTOS version that provides feature stability, and security patches and critical bug fixes for two years. This makes it easier to identify and include only recommended changes to the FreeRTOS kernel and libraries, without adding the risk of introducing updates that could break an existing application.

    Read More »

  • AWS Lambda now makes it easier to build analytics for Amazon Kinesis and Amazon DynamoDB Streams

    Posted On: Dec 15, 2020

    Customers can now use AWS Lambda to build analytics workloads for their Amazon Kinesis or Amazon DynamoDB Streams. For no additional cost, customers can build sum, average, count, and other simple analytics functions over a contiguous, non-overlapping time windows (tumbling window) of up to 15 minutes per shard. Customers can consolidate their business and analytics logic into a single Lambda function, reducing the complexity of their architecture.

    Read More »

  • AWS Lambda launches checkpointing for Amazon Kinesis and Amazon DynamoDB Streams

    Posted On: Dec 15, 2020

    AWS Lambda now allows customers to automatically checkpoint records that have been successfully processed for Amazon Kinesis and Amazon DynamoDB Streams, using a new parameter, FunctionResponseType. When customers set this parameter to “Report Batch Item Failure”, if a batch fails to process, only records after the last successful message are retried. This reduces duplicate processing, and gives customers more options for failure handling.

    Read More »

  • AWS IoT Greengrass 2.0 provides an open source edge runtime and new capabilities for building and operating IoT device software

    Posted On: Dec 15, 2020

    AWS IoT Greengrass 2.0 is now available. With this major release, AWS IoT Greengrass provides an open source edge runtime, a rich set of pre-built software components, tools for local software development, and new features for managing device software on large fleets of devices.

    Read More »

  • AWS announces Amazon Managed Service for Grafana in Preview

    Posted On: Dec 15, 2020

    Amazon Managed Service for Grafana is a fully managed and secure data visualization service that enables customers to instantly query, correlate, and visualize operational metrics, logs, and traces for their applications from multiple data sources. Developed in partnership with Grafana Labs, Amazon Managed Service for Grafana manages the provisioning, setup, scaling, and maintenance of Grafana servers, eliminating the need for customers to do this themselves. Customers also benefit from built-in security features that enable compliance with governance requirements, including integration with AWS Single Sign-On, data access control, and audit reporting via AWS CloudTrail.

    Read More »

  • AWS IoT Analytics can now store processed IoT data in data stores using Apache Parquet format

    Posted On: Dec 15, 2020

    AWS IoT Analytics is a fully managed service that makes it easy to collect, pre-process, enrich, store and analyze IoT data at scale to run sophisticated analytics on massive volumes of IoT data and gain insights into how IoT devices are operating without having to worry about the complexity typically required to build an analytics platform.

    Read More »

  • Announcing the first AWS Wavelength Zone in Tokyo, Japan

    Posted On: Dec 15, 2020

    Today, we are announcing the general availability of AWS Wavelength on KDDI’s 5G network in Japan. Wavelength allows developers to build applications that need ultra-low latency or high bandwidth for mobile devices and users on KDDI’s 5G network. AWS Wavelength is available on the KDDI 5G network today in Tokyo, and we are collaborating with KDDI to bring AWS infrastructure and services closer to customers across Japan.

    Read More »

  • AWS SDK for JavaScript version 3 is now generally available

    Posted On: Dec 15, 2020

    Read More »

  • Introducing AWS Systems Manager Application Manager

    Posted On: Dec 15, 2020

    Today, AWS announces Application Manager, a new capability in AWS Systems Manager to enable customers to manage their applications from a single console. The new capability enables developers and operators to discover their applications, view operational data, and perform actions within the context of an application. 

    Read More »

  • Enhanced error handling capabilities in AWS IoT Analytics data processing pipelines

    Posted On: Dec 15, 2020

    AWS IoT Analytics is a fully managed service that makes it easy to collect, pre-process, enrich, store and analyze IoT data at scale to run sophisticated analytics on massive volumes of IoT data and gain insights into how IoT devices are operating without having to worry about the complexity typically required to build an analytics platform.

    Read More »

  • Manage Microsoft SQL Server workloads on Amazon EC2 using Application Manager capability in AWS Systems Manager

    Posted On: Dec 15, 2020

    With Application Manager, a new capability in AWS Systems Manager, it is now easier to manage SQL Server workloads that are deployed using AWS Launch Wizard. Application Manager automatically imports SQL Server resources created by AWS Launch Wizard, and enables you to perform operational tasks such as database integrity checks, backup and restore, and index maintenance centrally from the Application Manager console.  

    Read More »

  • AWS Single Sign-On now supports Microsoft Active Directory (AD) synchronization

    Posted On: Dec 15, 2020

    AWS Single Sign-On (SSO) now synchronizes groups, in addition to user information, for customers who use Microsoft Active Directory (AD) as their identity source. You can now manage your users and groups in AD, and AWS SSO's AD sync will ensure that this information is accessible to you in a consistent manner within AWS accounts and applications. You will be able to access AD users and groups from AWS SSO-integrated applications and use them for improved collaborative experiences like searching and sharing, and fine-grained access control to application resources like dashboards. Any changes you make to user and group information in AD will automatically reflect in AWS SSO, reducing your administrative effort to manage identities in AWS.

    Read More »

  • FreeRTOS adds cellular LTE-M interface library to support cellular IoT based applications

    Posted On: Dec 15, 2020

    FreeRTOS is an MIT licensed open source, real-time operating system for microcontrollers that makes small, low-power edge devices easy to program, deploy, secure, connect, and manage. Starting today, FreeRTOS includes a preview of a cellular LTE-M library and AWS IoT reference integrations with cellular modules from vendors such as Sierra Wireless, u-blox, and Quectel. With this launch, customers will find it easier to build IoT devices that use the cellular LTE-M protocol to connect to AWS IoT Core. 

    Read More »

  • Now Secure Your SageMaker Studio Access Using AWS PrivateLink and AWS IAM SourceIP Restrictions

    Posted On: Dec 14, 2020

    Amazon SageMaker Studio is the first fully integrated development environment (IDE) for machine learning (ML). It provides a single, web-based visual interface where you can perform all ML development steps required to prepare, build, train and tune, deploy and manage models. Starting today, you can secure the connection from your Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) to SageMaker Studio using AWS PrivateLink. When using PrivateLink, all the traffic flows entirely within the AWS network without traversing the public internet, thus adding an additional layer of security. 

    Read More »

  • Announcing Unified Search in the AWS Management Console

    Posted On: Dec 14, 2020

    We are excited to announce the launch of Unified Search to enable AWS users to easily search and discover information in the AWS Management Console. AWS users can now search for services (e.g. IAM), features (e.g. Users), Marketplace products (e.g. Splunk), and AWS Documentation (e.g. troubleshooting guides) without leaving the AWS Management Console. You can access the search bar using a keyboard shortcut (alt-s or option-s), autocomplete by using the right arrow key, and navigate to the top search result by pressing the enter key. Unified Search is available in all public AWS Regions.

    Read More »

  • AWS IoT SDK for Embedded C version 202012.00 includes over-the-air update (OTA) library and PKCS #11 implementation

    Posted On: Dec 14, 2020

    AWS IoT Device SDK for Embedded C (C-SDK) version 202012.00 now includes an over-the-air update (OTA) library (release candidate) and a PKCS #11 implementation (corePKCS11). The OTA library makes it easier to manage notifications, download, and perform cryptographic verification of firmware updates. You can use the OTA library with your chosen MQTT library, HTTP library, and underlying operating system (e.g. Linux, FreeRTOS). This release includes examples for how to use the OTA library with coreMQTT and coreHTTP over Linux. The corePKCS11 library implements a subset of the PKCS #11 v2.40 standard, with a focus on operations involving asymmetric keys, random number generation, and hashing. You can use the corePKCS11 library to manage keys and certificates for TLS authentication and verify code-sign signatures on your IoT devices. The OTA and corePKCS11 libraries have been optimized for memory usage and modularity, and have undergone code quality checks (e.g. MISRA-C compliance, Coverity static analysis). For additional information on all C-SDK libraries and updates, , see C-SDK 202012.00 README.

    Read More »

  • Amazon EC2 announces Spot Blueprints, an infrastructure code template generator to get started with EC2 Spot Instances

    Posted On: Dec 11, 2020

    Spot Blueprints is an infrastructure code template generator that makes it easy to start using Spot Instances. It saves time in learning to use Spot and to start leveraging the steep savings and scale that Spot offers for interruptible workloads. You can use Spot Blueprints for the most popular services used with Spot Instances, including Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling, Amazon EMR, AWS Batch, and Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service (Amazon EKS).

    Read More »

  • AWS Security Hub now supports bidirectional integration with ServiceNow ITSM

    Posted On: Dec 11, 2020

    AWS Security Hub now supports a bidirectional integration with ServiceNow ITSM, making it easier for Security Hub users to automatically create and update tickets in ServiceNow ITSM from Security Hub findings and ensure that updates to those tickets are synced with the findings. This integration is available via the AWS Service Management Connector for ServiceNow app. After downloading the app, you can decide if you want to send all or only certain findings with specific severity levels to ServiceNow and you can decide if you want to automatically create incident or problem tickets. Then, when you make an update to various fields in the ticket, such as state or priority, those changes are automatically sent to Security Hub, so that Security Hub always has the latest and correct information about that issue.

    Read More »

  • Amazon Aurora PostgreSQL Integrates with AWS Lambda

    Posted On: Dec 11, 2020

    Amazon Aurora with PostgreSQL compatibility can now make calls to AWS Lambda functions. AWS Lambda lets you run code without provisioning or managing servers, and without worrying about scalability.

    Read More »

  • AWS IDE Toolkit now available for AWS Cloud9

    Posted On: Dec 11, 2020

    On December 11, 2020 we launched the AWS Toolkit for AWS Cloud9, enabling users of our browser-based IDE to easily manage core AWS services through the graphical user interface. A key component of the AWS Toolkit is the Resource Explorer – a view that allows you to navigate and interact with your AWS resources such as AWS Lambda, Amazon API Gateway, AWS CloudFormation, Amazon S3, and more. Cloud9 will continue to increase support for other AWS resource types through the Toolkit.

    Read More »

  • Amazon Aurora Supports PostgreSQL 11.9, 10.14, and 9.6.19

    Posted On: Dec 11, 2020

    Read More »

  • Amazon Lumberyard Beta 1.27 Now Available

    Posted On: Dec 11, 2020

    Amazon Lumberyard 1.27 Beta is now available for download, bringing you a range of updates including usability with optimized work flows throughout the user interface, support for new and improved physics features, and even more customization options for developers on major platforms.

    Read More »

  • Simplify EC2 provisioning and viewing cloud resources in the ServiceNow CMDB with AWS Service Management Connector for ServiceNow

    Posted On: Dec 11, 2020

    Starting today, customers can view and select EC2 specific parameters (single and list) during provisioning from AWS accounts associated with the AWS Service Management Connector for ServiceNow, formerly known as the AWS Service Catalog Connector. Customers can also view consolidated cloud resources via AWS Config Aggregator within the ServiceNow CMDB, making it easier for ServiceNow administrators to see cloud resource transparency across AWS Accounts.

    Read More »

  • Amazon API Gateway now supports integration with Step Functions StartSyncExecution for HTTP APIs

    Posted On: Dec 11, 2020

    Customers can now create HTTP APIs that route requests to the new AWS Step Functions Synchronous Express Workflows. 

    Read More »

  • Amazon EBS reduces the minimum volume size of Throughput Optimized HDD and Cold HDD Volumes by 75%

    Posted On: Dec 11, 2020

    December 11th, 2020 – You can now create Throughput Optimized HDD (ST1) and Cold HDD Volumes (SC1) as small as 125GB, allowing you to save up to 75% over the previous 500GB minimum when creating volumes at this new minimum size. 

    Read More »

  • Introducing Amazon Aurora R6g instance types, powered by AWS Graviton2 processors, in preview

    Posted On: Dec 11, 2020

    Read More »

  • Amazon QuickSight now supports Amazon Elasticsearch Service, and adds new box plot and filled map visuals

    Posted On: Dec 10, 2020

    Amazon QuickSight dashboards can now visualize data from Amazon Elasticsearch Service. Amazon Elasticsearch Service is a fully managed service that makes it easy for you to deploy, secure, and run Elasticsearch cost effectively at scale. Authors in QuickSight can select Amazon Elasticsearch Service as a data source, select the specific data domain to analyze and start visualizing in QuickSight. See here to learn more.

    Read More »

  • Amplify CLI enables serverless container deployments using AWS Fargate

    Posted On: Dec 10, 2020

    Amplify CLI helps front-end web & mobile developers provision APIs and host websites. With today’s Amplify CLI release, you gain the ability to deploy the GraphQL & REST APIs and host websites using AWS Fargate in addition to existing AppSync, API Gateway and Amplify console options. Just run the “amplify configure project” command and enable the “container-based deployments” option.

    Read More »

  • Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) announces Reachability Analyzer to simplify connectivity testing and troubleshooting

    Posted On: Dec 10, 2020

    VPC Reachability Analyzer is a new feature that enables you to perform connectivity testing between resources in your virtual private clouds (VPC). With Reachability Analyzer, you can quickly troubleshoot connectivity issues caused by misconfiguration, and proactively verify that your configuration matches your network connectivity intent.

    Read More »

  • Amazon Kendra adds support for custom synonyms

    Posted On: Dec 10, 2020

    Amazon Kendra is a highly accurate and easy to use intelligent search service powered by machine learning. Starting today, AWS customers can use custom synonyms with Amazon Kendra to improve the accuracy of their search results.

    Read More »

  • AWS customers can now use industry standard Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) to easily deploy, manage and scale their multicast applications in AWS cloud

    Posted On: Dec 10, 2020

    Starting today, AWS Transit Gateway supports Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) for simplified deployment and management of multicast applications. IP multicast on AWS Transit Gateway delivers a single stream of data to many users simultaneously. IGMP, an open standard, enables dynamic establishment of multicast group memberships allowing large groups of end users to access multicast data on demand.

    Read More »

  • Introducing AWS Transit Gateway Connect to simplify SD-WAN branch connectivity

    Posted On: Dec 10, 2020

    Today AWS announced the availability of AWS Transit Gateway Connect, a new feature of the AWS Transit Gateway that simplifies branch connectivity through native integration of Software-Defined Wide Area Network (SD-WAN) appliances into AWS.

    Read More »

  • Amazon EC2 announces new network performance metrics for EC2 instances

    Posted On: Dec 10, 2020

    Amazon EC2 now provides additional network performance metrics to help customers gain more insights into instance network performance. Five new metrics provide customers visibility when their instances exceed network allowances defined by AWS. This visibility helps customers proactively resolve application performance issues and right size instance fleets based on desired network performance. 

    Read More »

  • Amazon Redshift launches RA3.xlplus nodes with managed storage

    Posted On: Dec 9, 2020

    Amazon Redshift RA3 with managed storage is the the latest generation node type and allows you to scale compute and storage independently. Today, we're announcing RA3.xlplus - the third and smallest member of the RA3 node-family. RA3 allows you to size your cluster based primarily on your compute needs. With the introduction of RA3.xlplus, you now have even more compute sizing options to choose from to address a broader set of workload requirements. 

    Read More »

  • Amazon Redshift introduces data sharing (preview)

    Posted On: Dec 9, 2020

    Amazon Redshift, the most widely used cloud data warehouse, now enables a secure and easy way to share live data across Amazon Redshift clusters. Data sharing enables instant, granular, and high-performance data access across Amazon Redshift clusters without the need to copy or move data. Data Sharing provides live access to the data so that your users always see most up-to-date and consistent information as it is updated in the data warehouse.

    Read More »

  • Amazon Redshift announces support for native JSON and semi-structured data processing (preview)

    Posted On: Dec 9, 2020

    Amazon Redshift, a fully-managed cloud data warehouse, announces preview of native support for JSON and semi-structured data. It is based on the new data type ‘SUPER’ that allows you to store the semi-structured data in Redshift tables. Redshift also adds support for the PartiQL query language to seamlessly query and process the semi-structured data. This functionality enables you to achieve advanced analytics that combine the classic structured SQL data (such as strings, numerics, and timestamps) with the semi-structured SUPER data with superior performance, flexibility, and ease-of-use.

    Read More »

  • Amazon Redshift announces native console integration with partners (Preview)

    Posted On: Dec 9, 2020

    Amazon Redshift, a fully-managed cloud data warehouse, now supports native integration with select AWS partners from within the Amazon Redshift Console. With the new console partner integration, you can accelerate data onboarding and create valuable business insights in minutes by integrating with select partner solutions. With these solutions, you can bring data from applications like SalesForce, Google Analytics, Facebook Ads, Slack, Jira, Splunk, and Marketo into your Amazon Redshift data warehouse in an efficient and streamlined way. It also enables you to join these disparate datasets and analyze them together to produce actionable insights.

    Read More »

  • Amazon EMR Studio makes it easier for data scientists to build and deploy code

    Posted On: Dec 9, 2020

    Today we are announcing the public preview of EMR Studio, an integrated development environment (IDE) that makes it easy for data scientists and data engineers to develop, visualize, and debug data engineering and data science applications written in R, Python, Scala, and PySpark. EMR Studio provides fully managed Jupyter Notebooks, and tools like Spark UI and YARN Timeline Service to simplify debugging.

    Read More »

  • AWS Global Accelerator launches custom routing

    Posted On: Dec 9, 2020

    AWS Global Accelerator announces custom routing accelerator, a new type of accelerator that allows you to use your own application logic to route user traffic to a specific Amazon EC2 destination, while still leveraging the benefits of Global Accelerator. 

    Read More »

  • Simplify running Apache Spark jobs with Amazon EMR on Amazon EKS

    Posted On: Dec 9, 2020

    Amazon EMR on Amazon EKS provides a new deployment option for Amazon EMR that allows you to run Apache Spark on Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service (Amazon EKS). If you already use Amazon EMR, you can now run Amazon EMR based applications with other types of applications on the same Amazon EKS cluster to improve resource utilization and simplify infrastructure management across multiple AWS Availability Zones. If you already run big data frameworks on Amazon EKS, you can now use Amazon EMR to automate provisioning and management, and run Apache Spark up to 3x faster. With this deployment option, you can focus on running analytics workloads while Amazon EMR on Amazon EKS builds, configures, and manages containers.

    Read More »

  • Announcing preview of AWS Lake Formation features: Transactions, Row-level Security, and Acceleration

    Posted On: Dec 9, 2020

    AWS Lake Formation transactions, row-level security, and acceleration are now available for preview. These capabilities are available via new, open, and public update and access APIs for data lakes. These APIs extend AWS Lake Formation’s governance capabilities with row-level security. In addition, with this preview, we introduce governed tables - a new Amazon S3 table type that supports atomic, consistent, isolated, and durable (ACID) transactions. AWS Lake Formation transactions simplify ETL script and workflow development, and allow multiple users to concurrently and reliably insert, delete, and modify rows across multiple governed tables. AWS Lake Formation automatically compacts and optimizes storage of governed tables in the background to improve query performance. 

    Read More »

  • Announcing new Amazon EC2 G4ad instances, powered by AMD Radeon Pro V520 GPUs, with the best price performance for graphics intensive applications in the cloud

    Posted On: Dec 9, 2020

Источник: https://aws.amazon.com/about-aws/whats-new/2020/

Source code for airflow.models.dag

## Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one# or more contributor license agreements. See the NOTICE file# distributed with this work for additional information# regarding copyright ownership. The ASF licenses this file# to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the# "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance# with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at## http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0## Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,# software distributed under the License is distributed on an# "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY# KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the# specific language governing permissions and limitations# under the License.importcopyimportfunctoolsimportloggingimportosimportpathlibimportpickleimportreimportsysimporttracebackimportwarningsfromcollectionsimportOrderedDictfromdatetimeimportdatetime,timedelta,tzinfofrominspectimportsignaturefromtypingimport(TYPE_CHECKING,Any,Callable,Collection,Dict,FrozenSet,Iterable,List,Optional,Set,Tuple,Type,Union,cast,overload,)importjinja2importpendulumfromdateutil.relativedeltaimportrelativedeltafromjinja2.nativetypesimportNativeEnvironmentfromsqlalchemyimportBoolean,Column,ForeignKey,Index,Integer,String,Text,func,or_fromsqlalchemy.ormimportbackref,joinedload,relationshipfromsqlalchemy.orm.sessionimportSessionfromsqlalchemy.sqlimportexpressionimportairflow.templatesfromairflowimportsettings,utilsfromairflow.compat.functoolsimportcached_propertyfromairflow.configurationimportconffromairflow.exceptionsimportAirflowException,DuplicateTaskIdFound,TaskNotFoundfromairflow.models.baseimportID_LEN,Basefromairflow.models.baseoperatorimportBaseOperatorfromairflow.models.dagbagimportDagBagfromairflow.models.dagcodeimportDagCodefromairflow.models.dagpickleimportDagPicklefromairflow.models.dagrunimportDagRunfromairflow.models.paramimportDagParam,ParamsDictfromairflow.models.taskinstanceimportContext,TaskInstance,TaskInstanceKey,clear_task_instancesfromairflow.securityimportpermissionsfromairflow.statsimportStatsfromairflow.timetables.baseimportDagRunInfo,DataInterval,TimeRestriction,Timetablefromairflow.timetables.intervalimportCronDataIntervalTimetable,DeltaDataIntervalTimetablefromairflow.timetables.simpleimportNullTimetable,OnceTimetablefromairflow.typing_compatimportLiteral,RePatternTypefromairflow.utilsimporttimezonefromairflow.utils.dag_cycle_testerimportcheck_cyclefromairflow.utils.datesimportcron_presets,date_rangeasutils_date_rangefromairflow.utils.fileimportcorrect_maybe_zippedfromairflow.utils.helpersimportvalidate_keyfromairflow.utils.log.logging_mixinimportLoggingMixinfromairflow.utils.sessionimportprovide_sessionfromairflow.utils.sqlalchemyimportInterval,UtcDateTime,skip_locked,with_row_locksfromairflow.utils.stateimportDagRunState,Statefromairflow.utils.typesimportDagRunType,EdgeInfoTypeifTYPE_CHECKING:fromairflow.utils.task_groupimportTaskGroup

[docs]log=logging.getLogger(__name__)

[docs]DEFAULT_VIEW_PRESETS=['tree','graph','duration','gantt','landing_times']

[docs]ORIENTATION_PRESETS=['LR','TB','RL','BT']

[docs]ScheduleIntervalArgNotSet=type("ScheduleIntervalArgNotSet",(),{})

[docs]DagStateChangeCallback=Callable[[Context],None]

[docs]ScheduleInterval=Union[str,timedelta,relativedelta]

[docs]ScheduleIntervalArg=Union[ScheduleInterval,None,Type[ScheduleIntervalArgNotSet]]

# Backward compatibility: If neither schedule_interval nor timetable is# *provided by the user*, default to a one-day interval.

[docs]DEFAULT_SCHEDULE_INTERVAL=timedelta(days=1)

[docs]classInconsistentDataInterval(AirflowException):"""Exception raised when a model populates data interval fields incorrectly. The data interval fields should either both be None (for runs scheduled prior to AIP-39), or both be datetime (for runs scheduled after AIP-39 is implemented). This is raised if exactly one of the fields is None. """_template=("Inconsistent {cls}: {start[0]}={start[1]!r}, {end[0]}={end[1]!r}, ""they must be either both None or both datetime")def__init__(self,instance:Any,start_field_name:str,end_field_name:str)->None:self._class_name=type(instance).__name__self._start_field=(start_field_name,getattr(instance,start_field_name))self._end_field=(end_field_name,getattr(instance,end_field_name))

[docs]def__str__(self)->str:returnself._template.format(cls=self._class_name,start=self._start_field,end=self._end_field)

def_get_model_data_interval(instance:Any,start_field_name:str,end_field_name:str,)->Optional[DataInterval]:start=timezone.coerce_datetime(getattr(instance,start_field_name))end=timezone.coerce_datetime(getattr(instance,end_field_name))ifstartisNone:ifendisnotNone:raiseInconsistentDataInterval(instance,start_field_name,end_field_name)returnNoneelifendisNone:raiseInconsistentDataInterval(instance,start_field_name,end_field_name)returnDataInterval(start,end)

[docs]defcreate_timetable(interval:ScheduleIntervalArg,timezone:tzinfo)->Timetable:"""Create a Timetable instance from a ``schedule_interval`` argument."""ifintervalisScheduleIntervalArgNotSet:returnDeltaDataIntervalTimetable(DEFAULT_SCHEDULE_INTERVAL)ifintervalisNone:returnNullTimetable()ifinterval=="@once":returnOnceTimetable()ifisinstance(interval,(timedelta,relativedelta)):returnDeltaDataIntervalTimetable(interval)ifisinstance(interval,str):returnCronDataIntervalTimetable(interval,timezone)raiseValueError(f"{interval!r} is not a valid schedule_interval.")

[docs]defget_last_dagrun(dag_id,session,include_externally_triggered=False):""" Returns the last dag run for a dag, None if there was none. Last dag run can be any type of run eg. scheduled or backfilled. Overridden DagRuns are ignored. """DR=DagRunquery=session.query(DR).filter(DR.dag_id==dag_id)ifnotinclude_externally_triggered:query=query.filter(DR.external_trigger==expression.false())query=query.order_by(DR.execution_date.desc())returnquery.first()

[docs]@functools.total_orderingclassDAG(LoggingMixin):""" A dag (directed acyclic graph) is a collection of tasks with directional dependencies. A dag also has a schedule, a start date and an end date (optional). For each schedule, (say daily or hourly), the DAG needs to run each individual tasks as their dependencies are met. Certain tasks have the property of depending on their own past, meaning that they can't run until their previous schedule (and upstream tasks) are completed. DAGs essentially act as namespaces for tasks. A task_id can only be added once to a DAG. :param dag_id: The id of the DAG; must consist exclusively of alphanumeric characters, dashes, dots and underscores (all ASCII) :type dag_id: str :param description: The description for the DAG to e.g. be shown on the webserver :type description: str :param schedule_interval: Defines how often that DAG runs, this timedelta object gets added to your latest task instance's execution_date to figure out the next schedule :type schedule_interval: datetime.timedelta or dateutil.relativedelta.relativedelta or str that acts as a cron expression :param timetable: Specify which timetable to use (in which case schedule_interval must not be set). See :doc:`/howto/timetable` for more information :type timetable: airflow.timetables.base.Timetable :param start_date: The timestamp from which the scheduler will attempt to backfill :type start_date: datetime.datetime :param end_date: A date beyond which your DAG won't run, leave to None for open ended scheduling :type end_date: datetime.datetime :param template_searchpath: This list of folders (non relative) defines where jinja will look for your templates. Order matters. Note that jinja/airflow includes the path of your DAG file by default :type template_searchpath: str or list[str] :param template_undefined: Template undefined type. :type template_undefined: jinja2.StrictUndefined :param user_defined_macros: a dictionary of macros that will be exposed in your jinja templates. For example, passing ``dict(foo='bar')`` to this argument allows you to ``{{ foo }}`` in all jinja templates related to this DAG. Note that you can pass any type of object here. :type user_defined_macros: dict :param user_defined_filters: a dictionary of filters that will be exposed in your jinja templates. For example, passing ``dict(hello=lambda name: 'Hello %s' % name)`` to this argument allows you to ``{{ 'world'

Organization Central

Photo by Nathan Kirkman

The laundry room has finally come into its own as a bright and organized cleanup command center, whether in a tidy corner of the basement or a nook next to the kitchen. For help updating yours, check out our expert advice on everything from energy-wise machines and thrifty flooring options to the best labor-saving layout and how to safeguard the house from a potential flood or fire.

Where to Put It

Photo by Deborah Whitlaw Llewellyn

For lots of us, the basement is just fine. But many homeowners who can spare the space and expense prefer to have the laundry closer to bedrooms or the kitchen. Here's what to factor in before remodeling your laundry room.

On an upper floor

Pros: Proximity to where dirty clothes are shed lessens schlepping distance with hampers. Can tap into existing plumbing lines if in or near a bathroom.

Cons: Noise and vibration require extra insulation and a motion-arresting pad. Leaks can damage first-floor rooms. Closet installation requires a vented door and additional space around stacked machines to dissipate dryer heat.

Where to Put It (Continued)

Photo by Joe Schmelzer

On the first floor

Pros: Near where most other house-keeping chores take place. May be able to share kitchen or powder-room plumbing lines.

Cons: Laundry can pile up in cooking, eating, and foot-traffic areas. Need to carry hampers upstairs. Machines hidden in cabinets require vented doors and clearance space for proper ventilation.

Low-Impact Layout

Photo by Zack Benson/Cornerhouse Stock

You don't need a huge space. In fact, some of the most efficient laundry room designs are quite small, with the following four elements arranged in close proximity, not more than a step or two away from one another:

1. Appliances: Stack them or put them side by side to transfer wet clothes easily from washer to dryer. Machines should be placed directly in front of utility hookups.

2. Supplies: Store detergent, stain sticks, and other clothing-care items, such as a sewing kit, in closed cabinets, cubbies, or open shelving that's above or next to machines.

3. Baskets: Leave enough room in front of machines to empty or fill them easily, and create a nearby niche to tuck baskets or hampers out of the way but within easy grabbing distance.

4. Work surface: Add a counter or a freestanding table adjacent to stacked or top-loading machines for sorting, treating, and folding. With front loaders placed side by side, consider installing a counter on top of the machines to save space.

Comfortable Clearances

Illustration by Ian Worpole

Consider these measurements before hooking up machines or adding built-in storage to keep your laundry room looking—and working—its best.

Delivery-Day Reminder: Measure the dimensions of not only the area where the machines will be installed but also doorways and stairwells that they will have to pass through to get to the laundry room. Most machines need about a 30-inch-wide opening.

The Case for Front Loaders

Illustration by Edwin Fotheringham

They cost about $150 to $300 more, but front-loading washers tend to clean better and more efficiently than most top loaders—a faster spin cycle, up to 1,200 rpm, wrings out more water to cut drying time and energy consumption. A front loader also offers design flexibility and comfort; you can stack it with a dryer to save floor space, top it with a counter for folding, or raise it on a pedestal to a back-friendly height. To do the latter with a top-loading washer, you'd have to be part giraffe to reach inside the machine.

Front-Loader Add-On: Pedestals

Photo by Mark Lund/Getty Images

$100-$300

• Good storage for tight quarters because they sit beneath machines and don't eat up floor space.

• Elevate the washer and dryer, saving you from having to bend over as much to reach into the machines.

• Drawer can be ordered from the manufacturer that makes your machines for a perfect match. Just be sure to check specs; drawers should be deep enough (typically 12 to 15 inches) to hold detergent bottles upright.

Front-Loader Add-On: Countertop

Photo by Kate Kunz/Fancy/Alamy Images

$200-$800

• Fits across the top of the washer and dryer for a large work surface for sorting, treating stains, and folding.

• Prevents items from falling in between or behind your machines.

• Could be a custom counter, or a prefab rubber tray (made by several manufacturers to complement their machines) that resists staining, has a built-in backsplash, and often comes with rear pockets for laundry supplies and other small items.

Keep It Safe

Photo by Shaffer Smith

Washer mishaps are among the leading causes of home floods, and dryers account for thousands of fires annually. But with some key supplies, you can avert disaster and save thousands. Here's what you'll need:

• Braided steel washer hoses, shown left, that can't split open like rubber ones.

• Metal dryer-vent pipe sealed with foil tape, rather than a plastic flex hose, which is a fire hazard.

• A washer box that's recessed in the wall so that water valves are easily accessible and hoses don't loosen or get damaged by getting squished behind the machine.

Oatey Washing Machine Outlet Box, $23; The Home Depot

Safety (Continued)

Photo by Shaffer Smith

• An automatic shutoff valve that cuts water to the washer if it detects a leak or a burst hose.

FloodStop, $145; Amazon

• A washer drain pan (shown) to catch drips, especially for machines on main living levels.

1-2-3 Under Washer Tray, $30; Menards

Buying a Dryer: Gas or Electric?

Photo by Andy Crawford/Getty Images

The connections in your laundry room will likely dictate your choice. But if you have both a gas hookup and a 240-volt outlet, go for gas. It costs about $50 to $100 more than an electric model, but it's cheaper to operate over the long haul—15 to 20 cents per load, compared with 30 to 40 cents for electric. Considering that the average American family does 300 loads of laundry a year, that's an annual energy savings of $45 to $60 with gas.

Decoding Energy Star Labels

Illustration by Edwin Fotheringham

Most HE (high-efficiency) washers are also rated by MEF and WF. Here's what the new acronyms mean:

MEF: Modified Energy Factor is a measure of the energy used to run the washer and heat the water. The higher the MEF, the more energy-efficient the washer.

WF: Water Factor is based on the number of gallons of water consumed per cubic foot of capacity. The lower the WF, the more miserly the washer.

Ventilation Checklist

• Make metal vent-pipe runs to the outdoors as short as possible, with limited bends for the best airflow (45 feet max, assuming two 90-degree bends).

• Install a self-closing exhaust vent, rather than a louvered one, to keep outdoor air from coming into your home when the dryer is off.

• Consider putting in a bathroom-type vent fan in the ceiling to prevent moisture buildup in a laundry with a stall shower or pet-care station.

The Right Ironing Board for You

Photo by Bob Stefko

If you're the type to tote your wrinkled shirts to the den so you can watch TV while you press, go for the classic folding board. But if you prefer to iron in the laundry room, consider one of these built-in space-savers instead.

Drop-down board It stows in a recessed or wall-mount cabinet. Pricier models, such as the Deluxe Iron-A-Way Wall Ironing Board with a birch-veneer door ($351; Rockler), are configured with storage shelves and electrical outlets.

Foldout board This compact board unfolds from behind a false drawer front (shown) for a seamless look. The Rev-A-Shelf VIB Series Board ($179; Rockler) is sold as a kit that you can retrofit into an existing drawer.

The Best Basket If You...

Photo by Alison Rosa

Take sorting seriously: Individual stacking baskets that nest ($10 each), or a metal frame that holds multiple removable fabric bags ($35).

Like to roll: A wheeled garment rack with bins ($20 to $40).

Navigate stairs: Lightweight, soft-sided vertically shaped bins, similar to the loop-handled canvas one (shown, about $20 each). Traditional rectangular baskets are unwieldy and lead to scraped knuckles.

The New and Improved Utility Sink

Photo by Jurgen Frank

Standard-issue plastic laundry tubs stain easily, lack under-sink storage, and are too deep to be practical. A better option is a 10- to 12-inch-deep square or rectangular stainless-steel sink with curved, easy-to-clean corners. Paired with a gooseneck faucet or one with a pull-out spray, the setup is perfect for doing delicates, washing hands, and filling buckets and watering cans.

Smart and Cheery Finish Materials

Photo by Bob Stefko

Chemicals, water, and soiled items tend to get splashed, sprayed, and dumped in a laundry room, so when it comes to finishes, prioritize durability and affordability over luxury. But that doesn't mean your room needs to be dull. Consider these hardworking, thrifty surface options that can also inject color and texture to liven up your laundry space.

Floors

Glue-down linoleum (shown), cork, and vinyl floors shrug off moisture with less upkeep than wood and without the worry of ceramic tiles' cracking or dingy grout lines.

Finishes: Storage

Photo by Jean Allsopp

Rather than closed cabinetry, consider open shelves and cubbies. To stylishly conceal clutter under a countertop, hang a curtain printed with a colorful pattern.

Finishes: Walls

Photo by Roger Davies

Easy-to-wipe-clean semigloss paint, beadboard paneling, and glossy ceramic tiles can take a beating while injecting your laundry room with bright hues and personality.

Finishes: Countertops

Instead of natural stone, try nonporous solid surfacing, such as Corian (shown in Silver Birch), engineered stone, or laminate, which cost the same or less and come in muted and vibrant shades.

Which Lights Where

Photo by Nathan Kirkman

For general ambient illumination in addition to any natural light in the room, choose a low-profile ceiling-mount fixture. A pendant is a more stylish alternative, but steer clear of the folding area and upper cabinetry unless you want to play whack-a-lamp. For treating stains or spotting wrinkles while you iron, go with task lighting, such as LED undercabinet strips, which are energy efficient and stay cool to the touch, or focused overhead spots.

All the Extras

Photo by Nathan Kirkman

There are dozens of ways to upgrade your laundry room, but which of the bells and whistles are really worth the extra money?

Worth the splurge

• Replacing an old washer. Switching out one that's more than 10 years old for an Energy Star model can save you $35 a year in energy bills because they are 30 percent more efficient and use 50 percent less water. Plus, you may qualify for rebates and tax credits.

• Stainless-steel washer tubs and dryer drums. They last longer than plastic or porcelain-coated steel and won't chip, crack, scratch, or leave rust stains on clothes.

• Laundry chute (1). If you've got a clear path between floors—no wiring, plumbing, or ductwork to contend with—eliminating those tiring trips down the stairs with arms full of dirties can be easier than you may think. Old-house owners may even be able to convert a decommissioned dumbwaiter.

• Simple shower stall (2). Use it to bathe the dog, rinse off muddy outdoor gear, and hang clothes as they drip-dry.

• Movable or built-in island (3). Not just for kitchens, these workhorses can serve as a folding table or a homework station with stool seating, and provide extra storage for cleaning products, the toolbox, even craft and gift-wrapping supplies.

Extras (Continued):

Photo by Troy Thies/Collinstock

• Television (4). It'll keep you entertained during long periods of folding and ironing.

Not worth the splurge

• Natural stone finishes, such as marble, for counters and floors. They require sealing to prevent staining and don't absorb sound. With exceptions for high-visibility laundries, such as one that adjoins a kitchen where you want materials to match, they're rarely worth the expense and upkeep.

• Drying cabinet. This armoire-like machine air-dries your clothes with gentle heat and uses 90 percent less energy than conventional dryers, but at $4,000, you'll never recoup the cost.

• Jetted sinks with timers for hand washables. Most washing machines these days have extra-gentle cycles for delicates.

• Steam settings, which add some cleaning power to a washer but not enough to justify a couple hundred dollars more on the price tag.

• Interactive LCD displays on washers to track the progress of a load and get stain-removal tips.

• Built-in clothes bins. They hide dirties but tend to trap moisture and get smelly. Better to tuck bins into open cubbies where air can circulate around them.

3 Indoor Air-Dry Options

Photo by Anthony Masterson/Getty Images

Clothes dryers cost about $85 a year to run and are second only to refrigerators in terms of energy expenditure, so consider these electricity-free options when planning your new laundry room. Bonus: Air-drying causes less wear and tear on your clothes, so they'll last longer and you won't have to shop as often.

1. Hanging rod ($2–$3 per foot) Make it metal, and securely mount it to bear the weight of wet garments.

2. Retractable clothesline ($10–$50) Wall-mounted pull-out clotheslines, available as a single line or multiple lines. Set one up in a well-ventilated spot where you can lay down a towel to catch drips.

3. Foldaway rack ($10–$35) Choose from wood accordion-style and two-tier metal and mesh folding racks that expand to provide ample space to hang or to lay garments flat.

Multitasking Laundries

Источник: https://www.thisoldhouse.com/laundry/21018642/read-this-before-you-redo-your-laundry-room

Product overview

“The Elite 85t earbuds are Jabra’s best earbuds yet”

“.. impressive performance thanks to some great audio quality, effective noise cancellation and decent battery life”

“AirPods Pro-beating noise cancelling Bluetooth earbuds”

True wireless earbuds
Accept No Compromise

Levels of sound

3 is the magic number

As the sound experts, we know the human ear best perceives sound differences in increments of 3 decibels (db) – in fact, it's something you'll find in most volume controls - each step up or down is an increment of 3db.

So our engineers have specifically developed our 11 levels of sound for the optimum performance. Each level – from full ANC to full HearThrough, and everything in between – is around 3db apart, delivering a noticeable change with each jump. With a maximum ANC level that’s one of the best on the market, our 11 levels are all you need for the optimum experience.

It’s time to level-up the way you block out the world.

Sound demo is for illustration only. Actual experience may vary.

With HearThrough, the real world is only ever a tap away.

Using the adjustable sliders in the Jabra Sound+ app, you can choose your perfect level of both ANC and HearThrough and then use the button on your earbud to toggle instantly between them.

Oops sorry… we got a bit carried away with the tech there for a minute.

More intelligence

Chip has a 4-core processor structure and fully programmable digital ANC.

Outstanding performance

Hybrid chip with Jabra algorithm processes both feedforward and feedback noise, with independent multi-stage filter configuration.

Beamforming technology

4-mic beamforming technology for outstanding call quality and microphone performance


Large

Medium

Small

Fit comparison

Which design should you choose?

We scanned thousands of ears to develop the best fit, engineered for you.

Semi-open

Elite 85t

Featuring Jabra Advanced Active Noise
Cancellation (ANC)™

Show me more

Designed to sit in your outer ear, letting in sound when you want it, and blocking out the sound you don’t with Jabra Advanced ANC. Pressure relief vents ensure all day comfort.

A semi-open design is better for:

  • Commuting, or anywhere you need to be more aware of your surroundings
  • Giving you more control over what you hear
  • Hearing yourself more naturally when in calls
  • Hearing less of your ‘own’ noises like chewing or walking

Closed

Elite 75t

Featuring Digital Active Noise Cancellation

Show me more

Designed to sit further inside the ear canal, creating a closed fit for instant noise isolation from your surroundings. A more secure fit for enhanced in-ear stability.

A closed design is better for:

  • Closing yourself off from the noises around you
  • Feeling more secure and ‘snug’ in your ear
  • Passive noise cancellation

Feedforward mic - Cancels noise coming into the ear from outside
Thanks to your buds, you can say ‘goodbye’ to noisy traffic, loud voices in busy cafés and any other sounds in your immediate environment that you don’t want to hear.

Feedback mic - Cancels noise that is already inside the ear
Your own chewing, breathing and heartbeat – all very necessary, but with these earbuds, you won’t have to listen to them.

12mmspeakers

AACcodec

SBCcodec

In-app hearing test

MySound recognizes where individual dips in frequency occur, and automatically adjusts your sound to restore your music to its former glory.

Automatic adjustment

Adapts your sound according to your age and gender, based on our wealth of hearing data.

"Simply the best ... a better fit than ever before"

- Review Geek

"Apple's AirPods Pro have finally been bettered by the Jabra Elite 85t."

- The Guardian

Up to7hours battery time

Up to31hours total with charging case

15 minutes fast charge gives 1 hour of playback

They’re also wireless charging enabled, and compatible with all Qi-certified chargers, so when they do run low, just place them on your charging pad (or plug them into the USB-C cable).

*Registration required with the Jabra Sound+ app

IPX4rating

2-yearextended warranty*

Hey Siri, Cancel my 5 p.m. appointment.

Hey Siri, cancel my 5 p.m. appointment.OK Google, where is my next meeting?Alexa, play my easy listening playlist on Spotify Hey Siri, what appointments do I have tomorrow?OK Google, set alarm for 10 a.m.

Jabra Elite 85t headphones with digital assistants
Screenshots from the Jabra Sound+ App - Access SmartSound and other features for your Jabra wireless headphonesScreenshots from the Jabra Sound+ App - The perfect companion for your Jabra headphones

From MySound and MyControls, to call settings, a customizable equalizer and options for personalization, Sound+ brings you an incredible all-round calls and music experience, with no compromise.

Show me more

Download on the App Store - LogoAndroid App on Google Play - Logo

Materials

Into the details

The microphone holes in Elite 85t are individually drilled using a CO2 laser. This gives a smaller, more precise hole, with a considerably sharper edge, which reduces wind noise.

The vents are protected with SAATI Acoustex® mesh, for maximum airflow and minimal dust ingress.

Protection

Safe hands for healthy ears

As the only company in the world with consumer, professional and medical-grade sound, all under one roof, we’re uniquely placed to create safe audio products that don’t compromise on sound quality.

Each product we make is fitted with a failsafe mechanism. This means that even if the software fails, hardware will still act to prevent the volume from exceeding the maximum limitation for any unpredictable impulses.

Learn more about our hearing safety precautions

Iain Pottie, Head of design

“We combine solid geometries and high-quality materials to create a professional, premium look and feel, and a harmonic, intuitive user experience.”

Read more  +Read less  -

See more product details

See video

Available colors

  • Titanium Black
  • Gold Beige
  • Copper Black
  • Black
  • Grey

Technical specifications

Jabra Elite 85tJabra Elite 85t

Download

Technical specificationsData sheet

  • Audio

    • Audio Noise isolating fit

      Yes

    • Noise reduction on calls

      Yes, 6-microphone technology

    • Wind noise protection

      Yes

    • Audio codecs supported

      SBC, AAC

    • Speaker size

      12 mm / 0.47 in

    • Speaker bandwidth (music playback)

      20Hz to 20kHz

    • Speaker bandwidth (calls)

      100Hz to 10kHz

    • Microphone type

      6 x MEMS

    • Microphone bandwidth

      100Hz to 10kHz

    • ANC (Active Noise Cancellation)

      Jabra Advanced ANC™ using 4 of the device’s 6 microphones

    • ANC

      Yes, adjustable

    • HearThrough

      Yes, adjustable

    • In-ear pressure relief

      Yes

  • Fit & Comfort

    • Form factor

      In-ear true wireless earbuds

    • EarGels™

      Yes, oval silicon eargels (S, M, L)

  • Battery

    • Music time with ANC

      Up to 25 hours total (Earbud 5.5 hrs and charging case 19.5 hrs)

    • Music time without ANC

      Up to 31 hours total (Earbud 7 hrs and charging case 24 hrs)

    • Sleep mode

      Auto off after 15 minutes without connection, 30 minutes without activity, configurable in the Sound+ app

    • Wireless charging enabled

      Works with Qi-certified wireless chargers (min. 5 watts) - wireless charger not included

    • Corded charging

      USB-C

    • Charging time

      Up to 3 hours for full charge with dedicated USB wall charger (500mA)

    • Charging time - wireless

      Up to 3.5 hours at 25°C / 77°F (Wireless charging device dependent)

    • Fast charge

      Up to 60 minutes use, when charging earbuds for 15 minutes in charging case

    • Standby time

      6 months

    • Battery

      Rechargeable lithium-ion battery

  • Connectivity

    • Connectivity

      Bluetooth 5.1

    • Supported Bluetooth profiles

      HSP v1.2, HFP v1.7, A2DP v1.3, AVRCP v1.6, SPP v1.2

    • Operating range

      Up to 10 m / 33 ft

    • Paired devices

      Up to 8

    • Multi-connect

      Two devices can be connected simultaneously

    • Auto power on/off

      “ON” when earbuds are out of charging case
      “OFF” after 15 minutes without connection or 30 minutes without activity

    • Auto pause music

      Yes, when one earbud is removed from ear

  • General

    • What's in the box

      Earbuds, charging case, USB-C cable, 3 sets of oval silicon EarGelsTM, warranty and warning leaflets

    • Main unit dimension (LxWxH)

      23.1 x 19.0 x 16.2 mm / 0.91 x 0.75 x 0.64 in

    • Charging case dimensions (LxWxH)

      64.8 x 41.1 x 28.5 mm / 2.55 x 1.62 x 1.12 in

    • Weight (charging case)

      45.1 g / 1.59 oz

    • Weight (each earbud)

      7 g / 0.25 oz

    • Materials used (outside)

      PC & PC/ABS plastic. Si rubber. Mica paint. Au-plated metal

    • USB-C cable length

      300 mm / 11.81 in (USB-C to USB-A cable)

    • IP rating (earbuds)

      IPX4

    • Warranty

      2-year warranty against dust & water (Registration required with the Jabra Sound+ App)

    • Certifications and compliance

      Bluetooth 5.1, MFi, Qi, FCC, ISED, CE, RoHS, REACH, Proposition 65

    • Operating temperature for Earbuds

      -5°C to 45°C / 23°F to 113°F

    • Operating temperature for wireless charging

      0°C to 40°C / 32°F to 104°F

    • Storage temperature

      -10°C to 45°C / 14°F to 113°F

Video Reviews

Источник: https://www.jabra.com/bluetooth-headsets/jabra-elite-85t

 

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Airflow Crack is a platform to programmatically author, schedule, and monitor workflows. Use airflow to author workflows as directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) of tasks. The airflow scheduler executes your tasks on an array of workers while following the specified dependencies. Rich command line utilities make performing complex surgeries on DAGs a snap. The rich user interface makes it easy to visualize pipelines running in production, monitor progress, and troubleshoot issues when needed.

While this is a hassle-free action, getting data from your PC to your Chromecast or Apple TV device could prove to be a bit tricky, and a specialized app like Airflow can come in handy. You need to start by setting up a playlist by adding audio and video files to the main window of the app. Loading these items can be done by browsing to their folder manually or by dragging and dropping them onto the window. On the downside, the utility does not offer any way to filter out the formats that are not supported, meaning that the only way to discover if a particular track is supported or not is to try and play it.

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  • Simple to set up & use.
  • Subtitle support.
  • Surround sound.
  • Scrubbing with trailer.
  • Easy, polished user interface.
  • OpenSubtitles.org integration.
  • Scrubbing using Apple TV distance.
  • supports DVD and Bluray subtitles.
  • Stream for Chromecast or even your Apple TV.
  • A standalone program, not a server or a browser plugin.
  • Hardware-accelerated transcoding on Windows & OS X, using Intel QuickSync.
Airflow Serial Key: DVEFHS-RUFYGB-RFGCVR-RUYGUW WIUWR-FBVRVR-RUVBNC-EUHFRBR ESFGCV-EADGSXC-SFHC-ASFHXB SFHX-WRYSFG-WRYFGVB-RETDHG Airflow License Key: DSBSDR-YRGBC-RUYGFNE-RYFUNC DBBBDR-RUHBET-UGYHNC-RFYRHU QEWRF-ESFG-QETRSG-RWYSHFXGBV WRYSFG-RWYSFH-WRSHFD-5WUTEDGH Airflow Key: HBEJGR-RYGFN-TYUVBE-YRGFHJ VBNEYE-YGNUTT-HGJRIV-RGHIRR WERYF-RSYFH-SRYHFV-SRHDVB ARSGFV-SRYFHV-SRYHF-SRYHFD

How to Crack?

  • Unzip this file and force it to Run.
  • Now run and install the downloaded app.
  • Close the app if running.
  • Now download it crack or keygen file from here.
  • Open and extract that package.
  • Now run the .exe file for cracking.
  • Process complete restart of your PC or Mac.
  • All Done.
Источник: https://keygenwin.com/airflow/

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