features at two levels. IBM SPSS Data Collection 6 Patch 1 provides support for configuring activity feature trees to display in multiple-levels. Neutron activation analysis of Am is comparatively complex for several reasons. First, the Am cross section contains a resonance below the Cd. A Cambridge account gives you access to several Cambridge University Press sites Can I update my username? What does the activation code look like?
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Modification of software, often to use it for free
Software cracking (known as "breaking" mostly in the s) is the modification of software to remove or disable features which are considered undesirable by the person cracking the software, especially copy protection features (including protection against the manipulation of software, serial number, hardware key, date checks and disc check) or software annoyances like nag screens and adware.
A crack refers to the means of achieving, for example a stolen serial number or a tool that performs that act of cracking. Some of these tools are called keygen, patch, or loader. A keygen is a handmade product serial number generator that often offers the ability to generate working serial numbers in your own name. A patch is a small computer program that modifies the machine code of another program. This has the advantage for a cracker to not include a large executable in a release when only a few bytes are changed. A loader modifies the startup flow of a program and does not remove the protection but circumvents it. A well-known example of a loader is a trainer used to cheat in games.Fairlight pointed out in one of their .nfo files that these type of cracks are not allowed for warez scene game releases. A nukewar has shown that the protection may not kick in at any point for it to be a valid crack.
The distribution of cracked copies is illegal in most countries. There have been lawsuits over cracking software. It might be legal to use cracked software in certain circumstances. Educational resources for reverse engineering and software cracking are, however, legal and available in the form of Crackme programs.
The first software copy protection was applied to software for the Apple II,Atari 8-bit family, and Commodore 64 computers.. Software publishers have implemented increasingly complex methods in an effort to stop unauthorized copying of software.
On the Apple II, the operating system directly controls the step motor that moves the floppy drive head, and also directly interprets the raw data, called nibbles, read from each track to identify the data sectors. This allowed complex disk-based software copy protection, by storing data on half tracks (0, 1, , , 5, ), quarter tracks (0, 1, , , 5, ), and any combination thereof. In addition, tracks did not need to be perfect rings, but could be sectioned so that sectors could be staggered across overlapping offset tracks, the most extreme version being known as spiral tracking. It was also discovered that many floppy drives did not have a fixed upper limit to head movement, and it was sometimes possible to write an additional 36th track above the normal 35 tracks. The standard Apple II copy programs could not read such protected floppy disks, since the standard DOS assumed that all disks had a uniform track, or sector layout. Special nibble-copy programs such as Locksmith and Copy II Plus could sometimes duplicate these disks by using a reference library of known protection methods; when protected programs were cracked they would be completely stripped of the copy protection system, and transferred onto a standard format disk that any normal Apple II copy program could read.
One of the primary routes to hacking these early copy protections was to run a program that simulates the normal CPU operation. The CPU simulator provides a number of extra features to the hacker, such as the ability to single-step through each processor instruction and to examine the CPU registers and modified memory spaces as the simulation runs (any modern disassembler/debugger can do this). The Apple II provided a built-in opcode disassembler, allowing raw memory to be decoded into CPU opcodes, and this would be utilized to examine what the copy-protection was about to do next. Generally there was little to no defense available to the copy protection system, since all its secrets are made visible through the simulation. However, because the simulation itself must run on the original CPU, in addition to the software being hacked, the simulation would often run extremely slowly even at maximum speed.
On Atari 8-bit computers, the most common protection method was via "bad sectors". These were sectors on the disk that were intentionally unreadable by the disk drive. The software would look for these sectors when the program was loading and would stop loading if an error code was not returned when accessing these sectors. Special copy programs were available that would copy the disk and remember any bad sectors. The user could then use an application to spin the drive by constantly reading a single sector and display the drive RPM. With the disk drive top removed a small screwdriver could be used to slow the drive RPM below a certain point. Once the drive was slowed down the application could then go and write "bad sectors" where needed. When done the drive RPM was sped up back to normal and an uncracked copy was made. Of course cracking the software to expect good sectors made for readily copied disks without the need to meddle with the disk drive. As time went on more sophisticated methods were developed, but almost all involved some form of malformed disk data, such as a sector that might return different data on separate accesses due to bad data alignment. Products became available (from companies such as Happy Computers) which replaced the controller BIOS in Atari's "smart" drives. These upgraded drives allowed the user to make exact copies of the original program with copy protections in place on the new disk.
On the Commodore 64, several methods were used to protect software. For software distributed on ROM cartridges, subroutines were included which attempted to write over the program code. If the software was on ROM, nothing would happen, but if the software had been moved to RAM, the software would be disabled. Because of the operation of Commodore floppy drives, one write protection scheme would cause the floppy drive head to bang against the end of its rail, which could cause the drive head to become misaligned. In some cases, cracked versions of software were desirable to avoid this result. A misaligned drive head was rare usually fixing itself by smashing against the rail stops. Another brutal protection scheme was grinding from track 1 to 40 and back a few times.
Most of the early software crackers were computer hobbyists who often formed groups that competed against each other in the cracking and spreading of software. Breaking a new copy protection scheme as quickly as possible was often regarded as an opportunity to demonstrate one's technical superiority rather than a possibility of money-making. Some low skilled hobbyists would take already cracked software and edit various unencrypted strings of text in it to change messages a game would tell a game player, often something considered vulgar. Uploading the altered copies on file sharing networks provided a source of laughs for adult users. The cracker groups of the s started to advertise themselves and their skills by attaching animated screens known as crack intros in the software programs they cracked and released. Once the technical competition had expanded from the challenges of cracking to the challenges of creating visually stunning intros, the foundations for a new subculture known as demoscene were established. Demoscene started to separate itself from the illegal "warez scene" during the s and is now regarded as a completely different subculture. Many software crackers have later grown into extremely capable software reverse engineers; the deep knowledge of assembly required in order to crack protections enables them to reverse engineerdrivers in order to port them from binary-only drivers for Windows to drivers with source code for Linux and other free operating systems. Also because music and game intro was such an integral part of gaming the music format and graphics became very popular when hardware became affordable for the home user.
With the rise of the Internet, software crackers developed secretive online organizations. In the latter half of the nineties, one of the most respected sources of information about "software protection reversing" was Fravia's website.
The High Cracking University (+HCU) was founded by Old Red Cracker (+ORC), considered a genius of reverse engineering and a legendary figure in RCE, to advance research into Reverse Code Engineering (RCE). He had also taught and authored many papers on the subject, and his texts are considered classics in the field and are mandatory reading for students of RCE.
The addition of the "+" sign in front of the nickname of a reverser signified membership in the +HCU. Amongst the students of +HCU were the top of the elite Windows reversers worldwide. +HCU published a new reverse engineering problem annually and a small number of respondents with the best replies qualified for an undergraduate position at the university.
+Fravia was a professor at +HCU. Fravia's website was known as "+Fravia's Pages of Reverse Engineering" and he used it to challenge programmers as well as the wider society to "reverse engineer" the "brainwashing of a corrupt and rampant materialism". In its heyday, his website received millions of visitors per year and its influence was "widespread".
Nowadays most of the graduates of +HCU have migrated to Linux and few have remained as Windows reversers. The information at the university has been rediscovered by a new generation of researchers and practitioners of RCE who have started new research projects in the field.
The most common software crack is the modification of an application's binary to cause or prevent a specific key branch in the program's execution. This is accomplished by reverse engineering the compiled program code using a debugger such as SoftICE,x64dbg, OllyDbg,GDB, or MacsBug until the software cracker reaches the subroutine that contains the primary method of protecting the software (or by disassembling an executable file with a program such as IDA). The binary is then modified using the debugger or a hex editor or monitor in a manner that replaces a prior branching opcode with its complement or a NOPopcode so the key branch will either always execute a specific subroutine or skip over it. Almost all common software cracks are a variation of this type. Proprietary software developers are constantly developing techniques such as code obfuscation, encryption, and self-modifying code to make this modification increasingly difficult. Even with these measures being taken, developers struggle to combat software cracking. This is because it is very common for a professional to publicly release a simple cracked EXE or Retrium Installer for public download, eliminating the need for inexperienced users to crack the software themselves.
A specific example of this technique is a crack that removes the expiration period from a time-limited trial of an application. These cracks are usually programs that alter the program executable and sometimes the .dll or .so linked to the application. Similar cracks are available for software that requires a hardware dongle. A company can also break the copy protection of programs that they have legally purchased but that are licensed to particular hardware, so that there is no risk of downtime due to hardware failure (and, of course, no need to restrict oneself to running the software on bought hardware only).
Another method is the use of special software such as CloneCD to scan for the use of a commercial copy protection application. After discovering the software used to protect the application, another tool may be used to remove the copy protection from the software on the CD or DVD. This may enable another program such as Alcohol %, CloneDVD, Game Jackal, or Daemon Tools to copy the protected software to a user's hard disk. Popular commercial copy protection applications which may be scanned for include SafeDisc and StarForce.
In other cases, it might be possible to decompile a program in order to get access to the original source code or code on a level higher than machine code. This is often possible with scripting languages and languages utilizing JIT compilation. An example is cracking (or debugging) on the .NET platform where one might consider manipulating CIL to achieve one's needs. Java'sbytecode also works in a similar fashion in which there is an intermediate language before the program is compiled to run on the platform dependent machine code.
Advanced reverse engineering for protections such as SecuROM, SafeDisc, StarForce, or Denuvo requires a cracker, or many crackers to spend much more time studying the protection, eventually finding every flaw within the protection code, and then coding their own tools to "unwrap" the protection automatically from executable (.EXE) and library (.DLL) files.
There are a number of sites on the Internet that let users download cracks produced by warez groups for popular games and applications (although at the danger of acquiring malicious software that is sometimes distributed via such sites). Although these cracks are used by legal buyers of software, they can also be used by people who have downloaded or otherwise obtained unauthorized copies (often through P2P networks).
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- ^ abFLT (January 22, ). "The_Sims_3_70s_80s_and_90s_Stuff-FLT".
- ^Shub-Nigurrath [ARTeam]; ThunderPwr [ARTeam] (January ). "Cracking with Loaders: Theory, General Approach, and a Framework". CodeBreakers Magazine. Universitas-Virtualis Research Project. 1 (1).
- ^Nigurrath, Shub (May ). "Guide on how to play with processes memory, writing loaders, and Oraculumns". CodeBreakers Magazine. Universitas-Virtualis Research Project. 1 (2).
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- ^SKIDROW (January 21, ). "teethsmile.us-SKIDROW".
- ^"teethsmile.us-FiGHTCLUB nukewar". December 2, Archived from the original on September 13,
- ^Cheng, Jacqui (September 27, ). "Microsoft files lawsuit over DRM crack". Ars Technica.
- ^Fravia (November ). "Is reverse engineering legal?".
- ^Pearson, Jordan (July 24, ). "Programmers Are Racing to Save Apple II Software Before It Goes Extinct". Motherboard. Archived from the original on September 27, Retrieved January 27,
- ^ abcdeCyrus Peikari; Anton Chuvakin (January 12, ). Security Warrior. "O'Reilly Media, Inc.". p. ISBN.
- ^Ankit, Jain; Jason, Kuo; Jordan, Soet; Brian, Tse (April ). "Software Cracking (April )"(PDF). The University of British Columbia - Electrical and Computer Engineering. Retrieved January 27,
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Integrate HR Service Delivery with: HR management systems to synchronize employee profiles, to-dos, and other data; background check systems to request background checks; e-signature systems to request electronic signatures; and more.
For select systems, preconfigured integrations are available to use. You can also configure your own custom integration with third-party systems that use SOAP or REST services.
HR Service Delivery provides preconfigured integrations for the following third-party systems.
If a preconfigured integration is not available for a third-party system used by your organization, you can set up your own custom integration.
Integrating with an HR management system
The following video provides an overview of integrating HR Service Delivery with a third-party HR management system. To set up the integration, you must provide the source credentials for the third-party system, configure the inbound integration, configure the outbound integration, and schedule the integrations job.
For the inbound integration, data is pulled from the third-party HR management system to the HR tables in HR Service Delivery as follows.
A schedule or an event triggered in the ServiceNow platform starts the process of pulling data from the HR management system using the HR service mapping configuration, which binds the source and web services. Credentials allow access, so that the SOAP and REST services can retrieve the data. The data is parsed and mapped using the HR schema mappings, and sent to the HR staging tables. Finally, the data in the table is transformed via the HR transform maps, and sent to the HR profile table in the platform.
For the outbound integration, data is pushed from the HR tables or HR service in HR Service Delivery to the third-party HR management system as follows.
A schedule or an event triggered in the ServiceNow platform starts the process of pushing data from the HR tables or HR service. The HR web services transfer the data to the HR external interface, which is another table in the ServiceNow platform. The HR service mapping configuration binds the source and web services. The HR outbound schema mappings map the data from the source tables to the fields in the target system. Credentials provide access to that system, and the data is incorporated into that system.
Integrating with a background check system
The following video provides an overview of integrating HR Service Delivery with a third-party background check system. To set up the integration, you must provide the source credentials for the third-party system, configure the integration, and add the background check packages. Once the integration setup is complete, you can request background checks through the third-party system.
Once the integration setup is complete, HR agents from your organization can request third-party background checks through the HR Service Delivery application.
Data is pushed between the HR service in HR Service Delivery and the third-party background check system as follows.
An HR agent first creates a case to request the background check, and the ServiceNow platform sends the request to the third-party system. That system evaluates the request, updates it with the applicant ID and status, and sends it back to the ServiceNow platform. The platform then creates a task for the employee to sign up on the third-party site, and sends an email with a link to the site’s portal. The employee clicks the link in the email and completes the application on the site portal. The third-party system starts the background check, and notifies the ServiceNow platform that the check is in progress. When the background check is complete, the third-party system sends a notification to the ServiceNow platform and the record is updated to include the status of the background check, and a link to the details.
Support and troubleshooting information
Note: There are scenarios that are not supported in the initial integration, specifically when an employee is rehired or when an employee moves from contingent to full time.
HR Integrations is automatically activated when you activate Case and Knowledge Management. If it is not activated, you can manually activate HR Integrations. For information on what components are installed with the application, see Components installed with HR Integrations.
Why Is Colorectal Cancer Rising Rapidly among Young Adults?
, by NCI Staff
Doug Dallmann was in his early thirties when he first noticed blood in his stool.
“But, since it only happened occasionally and didn’t cause any pain, I didn’t give it much thought and never brought it up with my doctor,” he wrote in a personal account of his experience.
A few years later, when the bleeding became more frequent and intense, he decided to get it checked out. He was told that the cause was tiny rips in his intestines, which can’t really be treated.
“I just figured it was my lot in life to live with blood in my stool, and returned to ignoring it,” he wrote.
But then he started feeling sharp pains in his pelvis and knew something was seriously wrong. At his annual physical, it didn’t take long for his doctor to find the tumor. At just 40 years old, he was diagnosed with stage 3 rectal cancer.
Unfortunately, Dallmann's experience reflects a growing trend seen across the country. Since the s, the rate of colorectal cancer (which includes cancers of the colon and rectum) has more than doubled among adults younger than Not only that, but more younger people are dying from the disease.
This rapid increase is especially puzzling because the rate of colorectal cancer has plummeted among older adults—largely due to regular colonoscopies and lower rates of smoking.
“We don’t understand a lot about the causes, the biology, or how to prevent early onset of the disease,” said Phil Daschner, a program director in NCI’s Division of Cancer Biology. “And that’s important to learn more about because it may affect [approaches for] the treatment and survivorship of early-onset colon cancer.”
In September, more than leading scientists from academia, industry, and government, along with patient advocates, gathered online to exchange ideas and information about colorectal cancer in younger adults. The goal of the think tank, organized by NCI and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), was to identify research priorities that address important questions about the disease.
Although the participants discussed several different aspects of early-onset colorectal cancer—including prevention, treatment, and survivorship—identifying risk factors and causes for colorectal cancer in younger adults emerged as the top priority.
Rising Rates around the World
Nearly 18, people under the age of 50 will be diagnosed with colorectal cancer this year in the United States, said Rebecca Siegel, M.P.H., of the American Cancer Society. But the disease is still relatively rare, affecting far less than 1% of younger adults.
Some groups have been hit by the rising trend more than others. For instance, although people of all races can develop colorectal cancer at a young age, the spike has mostly been seen among Alaska Natives, American Indians, and Whites.
However, Blacks are still more likely to get colorectal cancer at a young age than Whites, even though the gap is shrinking, said Nathan Ellis, Ph.D., of the University of Arizona Cancer Center.
The United States isn’t the only country facing the alarming rise in early-onset colorectal cancer, noted Jeffrey K. Lee, M.D., of Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Similar trends have also been documented in Canada, New Zealand, Australia, and some parts of Europe and Asia. In most of these places, the number of cases in younger adults started trending upward around
Causes of Colorectal Cancer in Young Adults
Experts don’t know what’s causing the jump in colorectal cancer among young adults. But they do know some factors that raise the risk of colorectal cancer in older adults, including obesity, physical inactivity, and smoking.
“Some of those [risk factors] have become more common over the last 45 years, along with this rise in early-onset cases,” said Daschner, who helped plan the think tank. So, it’s possible that some of the same factors are responsible for the rise of early-onset disease, he noted.
On the other hand, there may be a set of unique risk factors for colorectal cancer in younger adults that researchers haven’t yet identified, he added.
Although certain genetic conditions—like Lynch syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis—raise the risk of developing colorectal cancer at a young age, only 10% to 20% of early-onset colorectal cancers are caused by inherited factors, explained Kimmie Ng, M.D., of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.
When the incidence of a disease changes by generation, that suggests the culprit is something in the environment, rather than something biological, Dr. Ng added, with many other meeting participants agreeing.
Diet, Gut Bacteria, and Inflammation
Most of the discussions about the possible causes of early-onset disease converged on three interrelated factors: diet, bacteria in the gut, and inflammation.
There’s mounting evidence linking an unhealthy diet—in particular, one high in processed meat and fat, and low in fruits and vegetables—to early-onset colorectal cancer.
Likewise, several studies have found that being overweight or obese may raise someone’s chance of getting early-onset colorectal cancer. Using data from electronic health records, Nathan Berger, M.D., of Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, found that half of younger adults with colorectal cancer were overweight and 17% were obese.
Unhealthy diets have become more common in past decades, the researchers pointed out. And the number of children and adults who are overweight or obese continues to climb.
In addition, Americans are spending more time sitting and less time being active. Studies have found that more TV time is also linked to a higher risk of early-onset colorectal cancer, said Yin Cao, Sc.D., M.P.H., of Washington University in St. Louis. But it’s not clear if that’s because being less active can lead to being overweight.
Other scientists have turned their focus to bacteria that live in the gut, also called the gut microbiome. Certain types of bacteria have been pegged as accomplices in the growth and spread of colorectal cancer, and some may affect how well certain cancer treatments work.
In lab studies, toxins from several types of bacteria that are normally found in the human gut caused cancer in the intestines of mice, explained Cynthia Sears, M.D., an infectious disease expert from Johns Hopkins University.
Perhaps not surprisingly, gut bacteria are affected by the food and chemicals we eat, drink, and breathe. Studies have shown that diet, obesity, exercise, and some drugs (such as antibiotics) can all change the number and types of bacteria in our guts.
Unhealthy diets and gut bacteria are connected in another way, too. Both can lead to inflammation—the body’s reaction to injury, disease, or irritation. In one study of mice, a high-fat diet triggered gut inflammation and accelerated the growth of tumors in the intestines.
As for gut bacteria, some bacterial toxins intensify inflammation, Dr. Sears noted. Studies have also shown that certain gut bacteria can recruit immune cells that help cancer grow, as well as block immune cells that fight cancer. Inflammation can also generate harmful chemicals that can mutate DNA and promote cancer, explained Dr. Ng.
In addition, certain chronic diseases, including irritable bowel syndrome, Crohn’s disease, and diabetes, can cause inflammation in the gut. Half of younger adults with colorectal cancer also have a chronic condition that can cause inflammation in the gut.
The effects of these factors could start very early in life—in childhood, infancy, or even in the womb—noted Caitlin Murphy, Ph.D., M.P.H., of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center.
Chemicals in the Environment
Scientists are also examining factors in the environment as potential causes of early-onset colorectal cancer. Such factors include things like air and water pollution, chemicals in soil and food, and pesticide use.
The National Toxicology Program, led by NIEHS, has identified 18 chemicals that cause cancer in the intestines of mice or rats, said NIEHS Director Rick Woychik, Ph.D., who also heads the National Toxicology Program. Some of these chemicals might damage DNA, potentially leading to harmful mutations in cells of the colon and rectum.
Other chemicals may have more indirect effects, pointed out Barbara Cohn, Ph.D., M.P.H. of the Public Health Institute. For example, mixtures of certain environmental chemicals (sometimes called endocrine disrupters and obesogens) can disrupt the body’s metabolism, leading to obesity, she said. Even though some of those chemicals are now banned, their use in earlier decades could have effects later in life for people who were born back then, Dr. Cohn explained.
In addition, some environmental chemicals may have harmful effects on the complex assortment of bacteria in the gut, Dr. Woychik noted.
People are exposed to many chemicals at the same time, some of which may interact in different ways, he added. So, it’s important to consider all of an individual’s environmental exposures over the course of their life, including exposures in the womb, said Dr. Woychik. How those chemicals interact with a person’s genetic and epigenetic characteristics is also important, he added.
Informing Approaches for Prevention and Treatment
Defining the causes and risk factors for early-onset colorectal cancer will likely help inform approaches for prevention, screening, and treatment, Daschner said.
For instance, health care professionals could recommend lifestyle changes or more frequent screening tests to people who, because of their exposures, are at higher risk of developing colorectal cancer at a young age.
A few medical organizations have lowered the recommended age to start colorectal cancer screening from 50 to For those younger than 45, tailoring colorectal cancer screening approaches to each person based on their risk factors (called precision screening) may improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of screening, said Dr. Lee.
Homing in on the causes and risk factors will also help scientists uncover the underlying biology of early-onset colorectal cancer. More specifically, it can help scientists pinpoint specific molecules that drive the growth of colorectal cancer in young people. Which, in turn, could hatch new ideas for colorectal cancer screening and treatment.
For example, some screening tests check for specific molecules made by colorectal cancer or polyps (growths that could turn into cancer). Knowing which molecules are key to the growth of early-onset tumors could help researchers design screening or diagnostic tests that are tailored for younger adults. It could also help them develop treatments that target those key molecules (an approach known as targeted therapy).
First, More Awareness
Although the coronavirus pandemic forced this long-planned think tank to be held online, it still brought together people with expertise in many different areas, Daschner said.
“We hope the meeting will spur research collaborations across these different areas” to make more progress, he added. To continue to promote research in this area, NCI has issued a funding opportunity for research on the causes of early-onset cancers.
But for now, many at the meeting agreed that there’s an even more pressing step: spreading awareness of the early warning signs of colon cancer in younger adults.
Both young people and doctors need to shed the notion that colorectal cancer is an “old person’s disease,” several meeting participants stressed. People should get used to looking at their stool and noticing changes, they noted.
“In retrospect, I wish I had paid more attention to the symptoms,” noted Dallmann, the young man who initially ignored his symptoms and was misdiagnosed for years. That’s why he continues to share his story. It’s inspired several family members and friends to get screened, he said, and a few were found to have polyps.
“It feels like a small repayment for the amazing outpouring of support I received from my friends, co-workers, families, my cancer support group, and those in the online cancer community who I’ll likely never meet," he said. "I hope that I can continue to pay it forward.”
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Small Entity Compliance Guide
On August 26, , the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“Commission”) adopted amendments to the definition of “accredited investor” under the Securities Act of (“Securities Act”). The amendments update and improve the definition to more effectively identify institutional and individual investors that have the knowledge and expertise to participate in private capital markets. The amendments are effective December 8,
What changes were made by the amendments?
1. Add categories of natural persons eligible to qualify as accredited investors.
Professional certifications and designations and other credentials
The amendments created an accredited investor category for individual investors who hold, in good standing, certain professional certifications and designations and other credentials designated by the Commission as qualifying for accredited investor status. The Commission designated three certifications and designations administered by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. as qualifying for accredited investor status:
- Licensed General Securities Representative (Series 7);
- Licensed Investment Adviser Representative (Series 65); and
- Licensed Private Securities Offerings Representative (Series 82).
Individuals holding any of these three designations in good standing can qualify as accredited investors. Whether a person holds one of the designations in good standing is specific to that designation, and persons seeking accredited investor status under this category should consult FINRA rules and any state rules applicable to them. For example, a person seeking accredited investor status by passing the Series 65 exam would also need to be licensed as an investment adviser representative in her state and would need to comply with all state-specific licensing requirements (e.g., paying annual fees, etc.).
The Commission may designate in the future additional qualifying professional certifications, designations, and other credentials by order. Requests for Commission consideration, which must address how a particular certification, designation, or credential satisfies the nonexclusive list of attributes set forth in the new rule, may be submitted at email@example.com
The amendments also created an accredited investor category for individual investors who are knowledgeable employees of certain private funds. To qualify as an accredited investor under this category, an investor must be a “knowledgeable employee,” as defined in Rule 3c–5(a)(4) under the Investment Company Act of (the “Investment Company Act”), of the private fund issuer of the securities being offered or sold. This includes directors and certain executive officers of the private fund, or of an affiliated person of the private fund that manages the investment activities of the private fund (“affiliated management person”). This also includes employees who participate in the investment activities of the private fund or other private funds or investment companies managed by the affiliated management person.
A private fund issuer is an issuer that would be an investment company, as defined in section 3 of such the Investment Company Act, but for the exclusion provided by either section 3(c)(1) or section 3(c)(7) of such Act.
A natural person qualifying as an accredited investor based on her status as a knowledgeable employee is an accredited investor only for offerings by the private fund and other private funds managed by their employer. She cannot use her status as a knowledgeable employee to qualify as an accredited investor to invest in other offerings.
Family clients of family offices
A natural person may also qualify as an accredited investor based on her status as a family client of a family office. To qualify, an investor must:
- come within the definition of “family client” in rule (a)(11)(G)–1 under the Investment Advisers Act of (the “Advisers Act”),
- be a family client of a family office that itself qualifies as an accredited investor, and
- have her investment be directed by a person who has such knowledge and experience in financial and business matters that such family office is capable of evaluating the merits and risks of the prospective investment.
See the discussion below of the “family office” category of accredited investor for additional information.
2. Add categories of entities eligible to qualify as accredited investors.
The amendments created several accredited investor categories for entities:
- investment advisers registered with the Commission,
- state-registered investment advisers,
- exempt reporting advisers,
- rural business investment companies,
- limited liability companies with more than $5 million in assets,
- certain family offices and family clients, and
- entities owning investments in excess of $5 million.
An investment adviser may qualify for accredited investor status if it is either registered with the Commission, registered with a state, or is relying on an exemption from registering with the Commission under section (l) or (m) of the Advisers Act.
Rural business investment companies
Rural business investment companies, as defined in defined in Section A of the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act, qualify as accredited investors under the amendments.
Limited liability companies
The amendments codified a long-standing staff interpretation allowing limited liability companies with more than $5 million in assets to qualify as accredited investors. Such limited liability companies may not be formed for the specific purpose of acquiring the securities offered.
Family offices and entities that are family clients
To qualify as an accredited investor, a family office:
- must come within the definition of “family office” in Rule (a)(11)(G)–1 under the Advisers Act,
- must have assets under management in excess of $5 million,
- cannot be formed for the specific purpose of acquiring the securities offered, and
- must have its prospective investments be directed by a person who has such knowledge and experience in financial and business matters that such family office is capable of evaluating the merits and risks of the prospective investment.
Similar to family clients who are natural persons, to qualify as an accredited investor based on status as a family client, an entity must (i) come within the definition of “family client” in rule (a)(11)(G)–1 under the Advisers Act, (ii) be a family client of a family office that itself qualifies as an accredited investor, and (iii) have its investment be directed by the family office.
All other entities meeting an investments test
The amendments also created a catch all for entities:
- not already considered accredited investors under the definition,
- that were not formed for the specific purpose of acquiring the securities offered, and
- that own investments in excess of $5 million.
“Investments” is defined in rule 2a51–1(b) under the Investment Company Act to include securities; real estate, commodity interests, physical commodities, and non-security financial contracts held for investment purposes; and cash and cash equivalents.
The adopting release for these amendments can be found on the Commission’s website at teethsmile.us
Contacting the SEC
Questions on the amendments and on other Commission regulatory matters concerning small companies may be directed to the Division’s Office of Small Business Policy at () or firstname.lastname@example.org The Commission’s Division of Investment Management’s Chief Counsel’s Office is also available to assist small entities and others with questions regarding the rule amendments. You may contact the Office for this purpose at or IMOCC@teethsmile.us
 This guide was prepared by the staff of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission as a “small entity compliance guide” under Section of the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act of , as amended. The guide summarizes and explains the rules adopted by the Commission, but is not a substitute for any rule itself. Only the rule itself can provide complete and definitive information regarding its requirements.
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Not all hackers are bad guys. To properly defend a network you need to know the type of attack youre going to face. So does a hacker make the best type of defender too?
What Exactly Is a Hacker?
Hacker is a word that has been repurposed and its original meaning almost completely erased. It used to mean a gifted, driven programmer. The stereotypical hacker was practically obsessed with programming, often to the exclusion of any kind of regular social life. Instead, theyd pursue low-level knowledge of the inner workings of computers, networks, andabove all elsethe software that controlled it all. Apart from the lack of social interaction, hacking wasnt considered a bad thing, per se.
With the spread of IT, cybercrime became a possibility and then a reality. The only people with the skills to have perpetrated the crimes were hackers, and so the term hacker became tainted. It became what it means to most people today. Ask someone to explain what a hacker is and theyll describe someone with extensive knowledge of computers, operating systems, and programming and the criminal intent to access computer systems they shouldnt have access to.
But even within this new definition of hackers, there are different types of hackers. Some people who try to compromise a network are the good guys. Using a trick from the black-and-white silent westerns, the good and the bad are told apart by the color hat they wear.
- A black hat hacker is the real bad guy. Theyre the ones who compromise networks and perform cybercrime. They try to make money through their illegal activities.
- A white hat hacker has permission to try to compromise a network. Theyre hired to test a companys security.
In life, though, things are rarely black and white.
- A gray hat hacker behaves like a white hat hacker, but they dont seek permission in advance. They test a companys security and make a report to the business in the hope of subsequent payment. They break the lawhacking a network without permission is illegal, periodeven if the company is grateful and makes a payment. Legally, gray hats operate on thin ice.
- A blue hat hacker is someone that isnt skilled, but they have managed to download a low-skill attack software such as a distributed denial-of-service program. They use it against a single business thatfor whatever reasonthey wish to inconvenience. A disgruntled ex-employee might resort to such tactics, for example.
- A red hat hacker is the lone vigilante of the hacking world. Theyre hackers who target black hat hackers. Like the gray hat, the red hat is using legally questionable methods. Like Marvels Punisher, they operate outside of the law and without official sanction, dispensing their own brand of justice.
- A green hat hacker is someone aspiring to become a hacker. They are black hat wannabees.
Black hat and white hat are terms that are racially insensitive and we look forward to them being replaced in the same way black list and white list are being replaced. Threat actor and ethical hacker are perfectly good substitutes.
Criminal Hackers and Professional Hackers
Professional hackers may be self-employed ethical hackers, available to test the defenses of any company that wants their security tested and measured. They may be ethical hackers who work for larger security companies, performing the same role but with the security of regular employment.
Organizations may directly employ their own ethical hackers. They work alongside their counterparts in IT support to continually probe, test, and improve the organizations cybersecurity.
A red team is charged with trying to gain unauthorized access to their own organization, and a blue team is devoted to trying to keep them out. Sometimes the personnel in these teams is always one color. Youre either a red teamer or a blue teamer. Other organizations like to shake things up with staff effectively moving between teams and taking the opposing stance for the next exercise.
Sometimes threat actors transition into the mainstream security profession. Colorful industry characters such as Kevin Mitnickonce the worlds most wanted hackerrun their own security consulting companies.
Other famous hackers have been headhunted into mainstream jobs, such as Peiter Zatko, a one-time member of the hacking collective Cult of the Dead Cow. In November he joined Twitter as head of security following tenures at Stripe, Google, and the Pentagons Defense Advanced Research and Projects Agency.
Charlie Miller, known for exposing vulnerabilities in the Apple products and hacking the steering and acceleration systems in a Jeep Cherokee, has worked in senior security positions At the NSA, Uber, and Cruise Automation.
Poacher turned gamekeeper stories are always fun, but they shouldnt lead anyone to conclude that illegal or questionable hacking is the fastpath to a career in cybersecurity. There are many cases where people cannot get jobs in cybersecurity because of mistakes they made in their formative years.
Some professional hackers work forand were trained bygovernment intelligence agencies or their military counterparts. This complicates matters further. Government-sanctioned teams of operatives tasked with performing intelligence gathering, defensive, and offensive cyber activities to ensure national security and fight terrorism are a necessity. Its the state of the modern world.
These highly-skilled individuals with a wealth of sensitive knowledge are eventually discharged. Where do they go when they leave? They have an employable skillset and they need to make a living. Whos hiring them, and should we care?
Shadow World Alumni
All technically capable countries have cyber-intelligence units. They gather, decrypt, and analyze strategic, operational, and tactical military and non-military intelligence. They provide the attack and surveillance software for those who conduct espionage missions on behalf of the state. They are the players in a shadowy game where the enemy is trying to do the exact same thing to you. They want to penetrate your systems just like you want to access theirs. Your counterparts are developing defensive and offensive software tools and trying to discover and leverage zero-day attacks, just like you are.
If you are going to hire a poacher to be your gamekeeper, why not hire one of the elite poachers? Thats a sound idea. But what happens if one of your crème de la crème former hackers chooses to work overseas or makes some other controversial career move?
It turns out thats nothing new, and its going on all the time. Shift5 is a cybersecurity startup founded by two former National Security Agency personnel. Not only did they work in the NSA, but they also worked in the Tailored Access Operations unit. This is one of the NSAs most clandestine divisions. Shift5 promises to deliver technology to help protect critical U.S. infrastructure. Think electricity supplies, communications, and oil pipelines. They announced a $20 million funding round in October Thats U.S. home-grown talent protecting the U.S. which seems perfectly reasonable.
The Israeli Defense Forces equivalent to the NSA is Unit Unit 82or the Unitis their famed military signal intelligence group. Alumni from the Unit, and its own secretive inner team called Unit 81, have founded or co-founded some of the most successful technology companies. Check Point Software, Palo Alto Networks, and CyberArk all have ex-Unit founding members. To be clear, theres nothing at all to suggest that they have a hidden agenda, questionable allegiances, or controversial practices. These are successful companies with spotless records led by brilliant technical brains. So thats fine too.
Complications arise when former U.S. intelligence agents are employed overseas. Their skillset and job function can constitute a defense service requiring a special license from the State Departments Directorate of Defense Trade Controls. Two U.S. nationals and a former U.S. national hit the headlines recently as it was revealed that they had been employed by the DarkMatter group, which was founded in the United Arab Emirates. DarkMatter ran the infamous Project Raven surveillance program for the Emirati government.
In September , Marc Baier, Ryan Adams, Daniel Gericke entered into a deferred prosecution agreement that limits their future employment activities and requires a joint payment of $ million penalties.
Attractive Skills in a Restricted Market
Companies hire skilled former hackers for their expertise and attractive skillsets. But if youre involved in cybersecurity activities for a state or military agency, you need to understand the limits and controls that are in place to make sure you provide your services to acceptable organizations and for acceptable purposes.
If youre concerned about being the target of hackers, there are several things you can do to keep your PC as secure as possible.
RELATED:Basic Computer Security: How to Protect Yourself from Viruses, Hackers, and Thieves
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