Comodo internet security essentials - Crack Key For U

December 28, 2021 / Rating: 4.8 / Views: 769

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Comodo internet security essentials - Crack Key For U

Comodo Internet Security Essentials protects you from internet man-in-the-middle attacks by warning you if a web site uses an untrusted SSL certificate. This additional layer of security is especially important during online banking or shopping sessions, or if you are accessing the internet from a coffee shop, park or airport.

Comodo internet security essentials  - Crack Key For U
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z AACK The acknowledgment bit in a TCP packet. (ACKnowledgment code) - Code that communicates that a system is ready to receive data from a remote transmitting station, or code that acknowledges the error-free transmission of data. Back to index Adware Adware is software which displays advertising content that is unwanted by users and is often installed without their explicit consent as part of another piece of software. Examples of Adware behavior are replacing your home page, redirecting you to web sites you did not request and displaying constant pop-up ads that can adversely impact your online experience. Back to index Antivirus An antivirus software is an application which is capable of detecting and removing malicious software such as viruses, trojans, worms and scripts from a computer system. A traditional (or 'classic') antivirus relies on a system of 'black-listed' signatures to detect malicious software. Under this system, antivirus vendors create digital signatures of any executable identified as malware. They then send this list of signatures to their customer's local antivirus software via regular (often daily) updates. The customer’s antivirus software will then flag as a virus any program with a signature matching a signature on the blacklist. One drawback with the signature system is its reactive nature – it can only detect 'known' threats. The vendor has to first identify the file as a virus before they can create a signature of it. In many cases, this means the virus has to have already infected someones computer before a signature can be created to combat it. Because of this limitation, most modern anti-viruses now deploy a wide range of layered technologies to determine the threat level of a particular file. Such technologies include heuristics, behavior analysis, cloud-based scanning, sand-boxing, host intrusion prevention and file-look up services. Back to index Antivirus Scan An audit performed by an antivirus application in order to detect malware and viruses in the file system and/or memory of a computer. Back to index ARP Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a protocol for mapping an IP address to a physical machine address, also known as MAC address, in an Ethernet local area network. Back to index Attached Resource Computer NETwork (ARCNET) ARCNET is a local area network (LAN) protocol, similar in purpose to Ethernet or Token Ring. ARCNET was the first widely available networking system for microcomputers and became popular in the 1980s for office automation tasks. It has since gained a following in the embedded systems market, where certain features of the protocol are especially useful. Back to index Auto-Containment Auto-containment describes the process whereby applications and processes which are unknown to Comodo Internet Security will be automatically run in a isolated operating environment. Contained applications are run under a set of access restrictions so they cannot cause damage the underlying file structure or operating system. The access restriction level applied to contained applications can be set by the user and includes 'Limited', 'Partially Limited', 'Restricted', 'Untrusted', 'Blocked' and 'Fully Virtualized'. Conceptually, the auto-containment is designed to securely handle 'unknown' executables - those which are not present on Comodo's black-list (definitely malicious) or white-list (definitely safe). If the unknown file turns out to be malicious then it cannot cause any harm because the sand-boxing process denied it access to critical system resources. On the other hand, programs that are unknown but perfectly harmless will run just as well in the container. This allows safe applications the freedom to run as intended while denying malicious applications the ability to cause damage. The auto-containment process is further enhanced if it is married to a system that can subsequently classify these unknown files as either 'safe' or 'malicious'. In Comodo Internet Security, contained files can be submitted to Comodo servers* for automated behavior analysis. If this analysis discovers the file is malicious then it is added to the black-list which is distributed to all CIS users. If the file does not exhibit malicious behavior it is passed to Comodo labs for more in-depth tests and possible inclusion on the white-list. Back to index B Behavior Analysis An activity performed by CIS to determine whether an unknown application in the container is malicious or not. Unknown files are analyzed by Comodo Cloud Scanners and Comodo's Instant Malware Analysis (CIMA) servers. If found to be safe, they will be submitted to Comodo labs for further checks. Back to index Brute-force Brute-force search is a trivial but very general problem-solving technique, that consists of systematically enumerating all possible candidates for the solution and checking whether each candidate satisfies the problem's statement. Back to index Buffer Overflow A buffer overflow is an anomalous condition where a process/executable attempts to store data beyond the boundaries of a fixed-length buffer. The result is that the extra data overwrites adjacent memory locations, often causing the process to crash or produce incorrect results. Hackers use buffer overflows as a trigger to execute to execute malicious code. Back to index Bug Error in a program that cause problems. Back to index C CA - Certification Authority A Certificate Authority (CA) is trusted third party that validates ownership information about a web-server then issues an SSL/TLS certificate to the organization that owns the server. The certificate is then placed on the web-server and is used to secure connections between the server and any clients (browsers) that connect to it. For example, an online store would use a certificate to secure its order forms and payment pages. A Certificate Authority (CA) such as Comodo CA will sign the certificates it issues with their private key. However, for the website’s certificate to operate correctly, there is a reciprocal client side requirement - the internet browser that the visitor is using MUST physically contain the certificate authority’s ‘root certificate'. This root is required to successfully authenticate any website certificates that have been signed by the CA. If the root certificate is not embedded in a browser, then the website's certificate will not be trusted and visitors will see an error message. Certificate Authorities proactively supply browser vendors with their root certificates for inclusion in the browser’s ‘certificate store’ - an internal repository of root certificates that ships with each browser. Back to index CIS Widget The CIS Widget is a handy control panel that shows information about the security status of your computer, the speed of outgoing and incoming traffic and other useful information. The widget also has shortcuts to common CIS tasks and allows users to launch contained instances of any internet browser they have installed on their system. By default, the widget is displayed on the desktops of Windows computers running CIS version 6.0 and above. Back to index COM Interfaces Component Object Model (COM) is Microsoft's object-oriented programming model that defines how objects interact within a single application or between applications - specifying how components work together and inter-operate. COM is used as the basis for Active X and OLE - two favorite targets of hackers and malicious programs to launch attacks on a computer. Comodo Internet Security automatically protects COM interfaces against modification. Back to index Computer Network A computer network is a connection between computers through a cable or some type of wireless connection. It enables users to share information and devices between computers and other users within the network. Back to index D Debugging The process of identifying a program error and the circumstances in which the error occurs, locating the source(s) of the error in the program and fixing the error. Back to index DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a communications protocol that lets network administrators manage and automate the assignment of Internet Protocol (IP) addresses in an organization's network. DHCP allows devices to connect to a network and be automatically assigned an IP address. Back to index Digital Certificate A digital certificate is a file used to cryptographically bind a company’s Public Key to its identity. Like a driving license or passport binds a photograph to personal information about its holder, a digital certificate binds a Public Key to information about that company. They are issued for between 1 and 5 year validity periods. Digital certificates are issued by a Certificate Authority like Comodo. Each CA acts as a trusted third party and conducts background checks on a company to ensure they are legitimate before issuing a certificate to them. Apart from providing an encrypted connection between a internet browser and a website, digital certificates are intended to reassure website visitors that the company they are about to make a purchase from can be trusted. To get a digital certificate, a company must first generate a Certificate Signing Request (CSR) on their web-server. This CSR contains their public key and their identity information. They then enroll and pay for the certificate and send their CSR to the CA. The CA's validation department will check that the identity information in the CSR is correct by conducting background checks and will sometimes request that the company supplies documentation such as articles of incorporation. Once validation is satisfactorily completed, the CA will issue the certificate to the customer. The customer will then install it on their website to secure sensitive areas like payment pages. Back to index Digital Signature Digital signatures are used for authentication and integrity, meaning it guarantees that the person sending a message is indeed the same person who he/she claims to be and the message has not been altered. To authenticate oneself using a digital signature, a person needs to download and install Digital Certificates in their systems from Certificate Authorities such as Comodo. The client certificate then can be imported into their browsers and email clients. The same certificate can also be used to digitally sign a document before sending it. The recipient can easily find out if the document has been tampered with en-route. Back to index DNS DNS stands for Domain Name System. It is the part of the Internet infrastructure that translates a familiar domain name, such as 'example.com' to an IP address like 123.456.789.04. This is essential because the Internet routes messages to their destinations on the basis of this destination IP address, not the domain name. When a user searches for a website name like ' their browser will first contact a DNS server to discover the IP address associated with that domain name. Once it has this information, it can successfully connect to the website in question. Back to index Dynamic IP The procedure of allocating temporary IP addresses as they are needed. Dynamic IP's are often, though not exclusively, used for dial-up modems. Back to index E Encryption Encryption is a technique that is used to make data unreadable and make it secure. Usually this is done by using secret keys and the encrypted data can be read only by using another set of secret keys. There are two types of encryption – symmetric encryption and asymmetric encryption. Symmetric encryption is applying a secret key to a text to encrypt it and use the same key to decrypt it. The problem with this type of encryption lies during the exchange of secret keys between the sender and the recipient over a large network or the Internet. The secret keys might fall into wrong hands during the exchange process. Asymmetric encryption overcomes this problem by using two cryptographically related keys, a key pair - a public key and a private key. The private key is kept secret in your system and the public key is made available freely to anyone who might want to exchange messages with you. Any message, be it text, documents or binary files that are encrypted using the public key can be decrypted using the corresponding private key only. Similarly anything that is encrypted using the private key can be decrypted using the corresponding public key. Typically public keys are made available to everyone by using Digital Certificates. The certificates are issued by a Certificate Authority (CA), which identifies a server or user and usually contains information such as the CA who issued it, the organization's name, email address of the user and country and the public key of the user. When a secure encrypted communication is required between a client and a server, a query is sent over to the other party for the certificate and the public key can be extracted from it. Back to index End User The person who uses a program after it's been compiled and distributed. Back to index EPKI Manager Enterprise Public Key Infrastructure Manager. The EPKI Manager allows you to issue bulk numbers of: Your nominated EPKI Manager Administrator(s) will be able to manage all the company's Certificates from a central web based console. Additional certificates may be purchased through the console in minutes; ensuring new servers and employee email may be secured in minutes rather than days. For more information about EPKI Manager click here. Back to index Ethernet Ethernet is a frame-based computer networking technology for local area networks (LANs). It defines wiring and signaling for the physical layer, and frame formats and protocols for the media access control (MAC)/data link layer of the OSI model. It has become the most widespread LAN technology in use during the 1990s to the present, and has largely replaced all other LAN standards such as token ring, FDDI, and ARCNET. Back to index Executable Files An 'executable' is a file that instructs a computer to perform a task or function. Every program, application and device run on computer requires an executable file of some kind to start it. The most recognizable type of executable file is the '.exe' file. For example, when Microsoft Word is started, the executable file 'winword.exe' instructs the computer to start and run the Word application. Other types of executable files include those with extensions .dll, .drv, .inf, .ocx, .pf, .scr, Back to index F False Positive When an antivirus scan is run and the scanner reports that some programs are infected with malware which may not be the actual case and the files are safe. This kind of false alert is called 'False Positive'. Too much of False Postive results can be annoying and the user might just ignore legitimate warning or delete legitimate files causing the relevant program or operating system to malfunction. Back to index Firewall A firewall is an application that helps an user or administrator to have a control over how the system should be connected with other network/systems or over the Internet. Back to index FTP File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a protocol used for file transfer from computer to computer across a TCP network like the Internet. An anonymous FTP is a file transfer between locations that does not require users to identify themselves with a password or log-in. FTP uses the TCP/IP protocols to enable data transfer. FTP is most commonly used to download files from a server or to upload a file to a server. Back to index G Graphical User Interface (GUI) The visual symbols and graphics with which a user controls a piece of software or device. Most software has a GUI that comprises of windows, menus, and toolbars. The user interacts with the GUI by clicking their mouse on a GUI element. Operating systems like Windows use GUI's because most users find them easier to use than less friendly interfaces like a command line. Back to index H Heuristics Heuristics is a technique that continuously evolves based on experience for solving problems, discovery and learning. When the term is used in computer security parlance, Heuristics is about detecting virus-like behavior or attributes rather than looking for a precise virus signature that match a signature on the virus blacklist. Comodo Internet Security applies this technology in the application, which is a quantum leap in the battle against malicious scripts and programs as it allows the engine to 'predict' the existence of new viruses - even if it is not contained in the current virus database. Back to index HIPS A Host Intrusion Protection System (HIPS) is designed to identify and block zero malware by monitoring the behavior of all applications and processes. It is designed to prevent actions that could cause damage to your operating system, system-memory, registry keys or personal data. Security software using a HIPS system will generally enforce rules prescribing the permitted activities of processes and executables at the point of execution. Examples of such activities can include changes to files or directories, accessing protected COM interfaces, modifications to the registry, starting up another application or writing to the memory space of another application. The precise nature of these rules can be set by the user or pre-configured by the vendor. If an executable or process attempts to perform an action that transgresses these rules then the HIPS system will block the attempt and generate an alert notifying the user of that action. Most HIPS alerts will also include security advice. Back to index HTTP HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is the foundation protocol of the World Wide Web. It sets the rules for exchanges between browser and server. It provides for the transfer of hypertext and hypermedia, for recognition of file types, and other functions. Back to index I ICMP The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is part of Internet Protocol (IP) suite and used to report network applications communications errors, network congestion, timeouts and availability of remote hosts. Back to index IDS An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is software/hardware that detects and logs inappropriate, incorrect, or anomalous activity. IDS are typically characterized based on the source of the data they monitor: host or network. A host-based IDS uses system log files and other electronic audit data to identify suspicious activity. A network-based IDS uses a sensor to monitor packets on the network to which it is attached. Back to index IMAP Internet Message Access Protocol'. It is different from the standard POP3 method in that with IMAP, email messages are stored on the server, while in POP3, the messages are transferred to the client's computer when they are read. Thus, using IMAP allows you to access your email from more than one machine, while POP3 does not. This is important because some email servers only work with some protocols. Back to index Information Security Exposure An information security exposure is a mistake in software that allows access to information or capabilities that can be used by a hacker as a stepping-stone into a system or network. Back to index Internet Service Provider (ISP) A company or organization that provides the connection between a local computer or network, and the larger Internet. Back to index IP - Internet Protocol The Internet Protocol (IP) is a data-oriented protocol used by source and destination hosts for communicating data across a packet-switched network. An IP address is a numeric address that is used to identify a network interface on a specific network or subnetwork. Every computer or server on the Internet has an IP address. When a user types a domain name such as into the address bar of their browser, the browser still needs to find the IP address associated with that domain in order to reach the website. It finds the IP address by consulting with a DNS server. There are currently two versions of IP in use today – IPv4 and Ipv6. IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4) was developed in 1981 and is still the most widely deployed version - accounting for almost all of today's Internet traffic. However, because IPv4 uses 32 bits for IP addresses, there is a physical upper limit of around 4.3 billion possible IP addresses - a figure widely viewed as inadequate to cope with the further expansion of the Internet. In simple terms, the number of devices requiring IP addresses is in danger of exceeding the number of IP addresses that are available. IPv6 is intended to replace IPv4, which uses 128 bits per address (delivering 3.4×1038 unique addresses) and is viewed as the only realistic, long term solution to IP address exhaustion. IPv6 also implements numerous enhancements that are not present in IPv4 - including greater security, improved support for mobile devices and more efficient routing of data packets. Back to index K Key Logger Key logger is a software application or a hardware device that keeps tracks of computer activity in real time including the keys that are pressed. Key loggers are used to troubleshoot technical problems in computer systems. The application can also be used for malicious purposes such as to steal passwords and other sensitive information. Back to index L LAN A local area network (LAN) is a computer network covering a small local area, like a home, office, or small group of buildings such as a home, office, or college. Current LANs are most likely to be based on switched Ethernet or Wi-Fi technology running at 10, 100 or 1,000 Mbit/s (1,000 Mbit/s is also known as 1 Gbit/s). Back to index Leak Test Leak Test is a way to find out how well your system is protected by your security software from external and internal threats. Typically these tests are down-loadable and should not cause any harm to your system while being run. The Firewall Leak Tests are used to test how effective the firewall component of your security software is at detecting and blocking outgoing connection attempts. If an application is able to connect to the Internet without your knowledge, it poses a real danger meaning it can easily retrieve private and confidential information from your system and transmit it. Host Intrusion Prevention System (HIPS) tests are designed to test how well your security software is capable of protecting your internal system from malicious attacks such as viruses. A good HIPS system will deny the malware from accessing your critical operating system files, registry keys, COM interfaces and running processes. Back to index License The official terms of use for a specific program. A software license is a legal document since it formally restricts the rights of the user. Back to index M MAC Address A Media Access Control (MAC) address is a number that is hardwired in network adapters and is used to identify the device or system in which it is installed. Every device on a network has two addresses: a MAC (Media Access Control) address and an IP (Internet Protocol) address. The MAC address is the address of the physical network interface card inside the device, and never changes for the life of the device (in other words, the network card inside the PC has a hard coded MAC address that it keeps even if installed it in a different machine). On the other hand, the IP address can change if the machine moves to another part of the network or the network uses DHCP to assign dynamic IP addresses. In order to correctly route a packet of data from a host to the destination network card it is essential to maintain a record of the correlation between a device's IP address and it's MAC address. The Address Resolution Protocol performs this function by matching an IP address to its appropriate MAC address (and vice versa). The ARP cache is a record of all the IP and MAC addresses that the computer has matched together. Back to index Malicious File Often called 'Malware', a malicious file is software designed to damage computer systems, steal sensitive information or gain unauthorized access to private computer systems. For example it may be coded to gather sensitive information from a system such as passwords, credit card details and send them back to the creator of the malware. Back to index Malware Malware is short for 'malicious software'. It is an umbrella term that describes a wide range of malicious software including viruses, trojans, worms, scripts and root kits. When installed on a computer system or network, malware can disrupt operations, steal sensitive and personal information, delete important data, create zombie networks and perform other destructive operations. Back to index N Network (computer) Networking is the scientific and engineering discipline concerned with communication between computer systems. Computer networking is sometimes considered a sub-discipline of telecommunications. Such networks involves at least two computers, which can be separated by a few inches (e.g. Back to index Network Zone A Network Zone can consist of an individual machine (including a single home computer connected to Internet) or a network of thousands of machines to which access can be granted or denied. The creation of network zones helps an administrator to apply changes for all the computer(s) in selected zone(s). Back to index NIDS NIDS - Network-Based Intrusion Detection System. Detects intrusions based upon suspicious network traffic. A network intrusion detection system (NIDS) is a system that tries to detect malicious activity such as denial of service attacks, port-scans or even attempts to crack into computers by monitoring network traffic. Back to index NNTP Network News Transfer Protocol - Refers to the standard protocol used for transferring Usenet news from machine to machine. A protocol is simply a format used to transfer data to two different machines. A protocol will set out terms to indicate what error checking method will be used, how the sending machine will indicate when it is has finished sending the data, and how the receiving machine will indicate that it has received the data. Back to index O Operating System (OS) The essential software to control both the hardware and other software of a computer. An operating system's most obvious features are managing files and applications. An OS also manages a computer's connection to a network, if one exists. Microsoft Windows, Macintosh OS, and Linux are operating systems. Back to index P Ping Ping is a computer network tool used to test whether a particular host is reachable across an IP network. Used also for certificate dissemination (for instance as a response to a PKCS#10 message). Back to index PKCS PKCS refers to a group of Public Key Cryptography Standards devised and published by RSA Security. Formed the basis for S/MIME, which is now based on RFC 3852, an updated Cryptographic Message Syntax Standard (CMS). Format of messages sent to a certification authority to request certification of a public key. Back to index PKCS#12 Defines a file format commonly used to store private keys with accompanying public key certificates, protected with a password-based symmetric key. Back to index Plugin A program that allows a Web browser to display a wider range of content than originally intended. For example: the Flash plugin allows Web browsers to display Flash content. The first, called POP2, became a standard in the mid-80's and requires SMTP to send messages. The newer version, POP3, can be used with or without SMTP. Back to index POP3 POP3 is the abbreviation for Post Office Protocol - a data format for delivery of emails across the Internet. Back to index Ports A computer port is an interface that allows communication between applications or processes running on a host computer and other computers, devices or networks. Your computer sends and receives data to other computers and to the Internet through a port. There are over 65,000 numbered ports on every computer - with certain ports being traditionally reserved for certain services. For example, your machine almost definitely connects to Internet using port 80 and port 443. Your e-mail application connects to your mail server through port 25. Back to index Potentially Unwanted Application A potentially unwanted application (PUA) is a piece of software that (i) a user may or may not be aware is installed on their computer, and/or (ii) may have functionality and objectives that are not clear to the user. PUA's are often installed as an additional extra when the user is installing an unrelated piece of software. Unlike malware, many PUA's are 'legitimate' pieces of software with their own EULA agreements. However, the 'true' functionality of the software might not have been made clear to the end-user at the time of installation. For example, a browser toolbar may also contain code that tracks a user's activity on the Internet. Because of this ambiguity, many antivirus companies use the term 'Potentially Unwanted Application' to identify such software. Back to index Q Quarantined Files After an antivirus scan, files that are detected as malware may either be deleted immediately or isolated in a secure environment known as 'quarantine'. Any files moved into quarantine are encrypted so they cannot be run or executed. This prevents infected files from corrupting the rest of a computer. Back to index R Registry Keys The Windows Registry serves as an archive for collecting and storing the configuration settings of all computer hardware, software and Windows components. Every time an application or hardware is started, it will access the registry keys relating to it. Applications will also access and modify their registry keys constantly during the course of their execution. As the registry is one of the most regularly accessed parts of Windows, it plays a critical role in the stability, reliability and performance of a computer. Indeed, many computer problems are caused by registry errors. Corrupt keys and invalid keys left by uninstalled applications can often cause severe degradation in system performance, crashes and, in extreme cases, can render a system un-bootable. Inexperienced users are, however, discouraged from making manual adjustments to the registry because a single change can have potentially devastating consequences. There are several dedicated registry cleaners available today, including Comodo PC Tune Up. Back to index S S/MIME S/MIME (Secure / Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) is a standard for public key encryption and signing of email encapsulated in MIME. Back to index Single User Certificate A single use certificate refers to the x.509 and associated private key generated by Secure Email on Alice; stored on SES and downloaded by Bob after a successful SSL client authentication. Back to index SMB A message format used by DOS and Windows to share files, directories and devices. Net BIOS is based on the SMB format, and many network products use SMB. These SMB-based networks include Lan Manager, Windows for Workgroups, Windows NT, and Lan Server. There are also a number of products that use SMB to enable file sharing among different operating system platforms. Back to index SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is the most widely used standard for email transmission across the Internet. SMTP is a relatively simple, text-based protocol, where one or more recipients of a message are specified (and in most cases verified to exist) and then the message text is transferred. Back to index SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol. The network management protocol used almost exclusively in TCP/IP networks. SNMP provides a means to monitor and control network devices, and to manage configurations, statistics collection, performance, and security. Back to index Spyware Spyware is a program that performs certain actions without the consent of the user such as displaying advertisements, collecting personal and sensitive information and changing the configuration of the computer. Not all tracking software are malicious since you may have agreed to the conditions as a trade-off for obtaining certain services for free. The tracking software will monitor your online activities to decide what kind of ads should be shown for you. Back to index SSL Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a commonly used protocol for ensuring secure message transmission on the internet. It facilitates an encrypted connection between a web server and an internet browser. It was developed by Netscape in 1994 as a direct response to growing concerns over internet security. The encryption provided by SSL means that all data passed between a web server and a browser is private and cannot be eavesdropped on. You can tell if you are in an SSL session if the URL begins with https. SSL is used on the payment pages of millions of websites to protect their online transactions with their customers. Back to index STATIC IP An IP address which is the same every time you log on to the Internet. Back to index Stealth Port Port Stealthing is a security technique whereby ports on an Internet connected PC are hidden so that they provide no response to a remote port scan. A computer sends and receives data to other computers and to the Internet through an interface called a port. There are over 65,000 numbered ports on every computer - with certain ports being traditionally reserved for certain services. For example, most computers connect to the internet using ports 80 and port 443. Most e-mail applications connect to their mail server through port 25. A 'port scanning' attack consists of sending a message to each port to find out which are open and which are being used by services. With this knowledge, a hacker can determine which attacks are likely to work against a particular computer. Port stealthing effectively makes it invisible to a port scan. This differs from simply 'closing' a port as NO response is given to any connection attempt ('closed' ports respond with a 'closed' reply- revealing to the hacker that there is actually a PC in existence). Back to index Stateful Packet Inspection Stateful Packet Inspection, also known as SPI, is an enhanced firewall technique that uses dynamic packet filtering method over the older method of static packet filtering. SPI scrutinizes the packet contents, monitors traffic and keeps track of the sources of packets. A network administrator can configure the firewall that uses SPI according to the needs of the organization, for example, close ports until requested by legitimate users to open them. Back to index SYN SYN (synchronize) is a type of packet used by the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) when initiating a new connection to synchronize the sequence numbers on two connecting computers. The SYN is acknowledged by a SYN/ACK by the responding computer. Back to index T TCP TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol. TCP is one of the main protocols in TCP/IP networks. Whereas the IP protocol deals only with packets, TCP enables two hosts to establish a connection and exchange streams of data. TCP guarantees delivery of data and also guarantees that packets will be delivered in the same order in which they were sent. Back to index Token-Ring LAN technology was developed and promoted by IBM in the early 1980s and standardized as IEEE 802.5 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Initially very successful, it went into steep decline after the introduction of 10BASE-T for Ethernet and the EIA/TIA 568 cabling standard in the early 1990s. A fierce marketing effort led by IBM sought to claim better performance and reliability over Ethernet for critical applications due to its deterministic access method, but was no more successful than similar battles in the same era over their Micro Channel architecture. Madge Networks, a one time competitor to IBM, is now considered to be the market leader in Token Ring. Back to index Trojan A Trojan is a type of malware that looks like a legitimate piece of software and users are tricked to install and execute in their computers. The malware takes the name from the Greek mythology, Trojan Horse, a wooden horse that was used by the Greeks to infiltrate the city of Troy. Once the malware is activated, it can damage the system, spread other computer viruses and also create a back door so as to allow online fraudsters to take access or control the system. Back to index Trusted Files In Comodo Internet Security, a trusted file is one that is considered safe and is allowed to run on a user's computer. This type of file can also be referred to as a 'safe' file or a 'white-listed' file. A file will be treated as safe if it is in the 'Trusted Files' list OR if it is digitally signed by a 'Trusted Software Vendor'. Comodo Internet Security ships with a list of trusted files and a list of Trusted Vendors. Users can add their own trusted files and vendors to their local installation. They can also submit files and vendors to Comodo so they can be considered for inclusion in future safe lists. Back to index Trusted Software Vendor A Trusted Software Vendor (TSV) is a publisher of software that is automatically trusted by Comodo Internet Security software. Executable files that have been digitally signed by a TSV will be allowed to run normally and will not be placed in the container. Many software vendors digitally sign their software with a code signing certificate. Digitally signed software helps a user to identify the publisher and to be sure that the software he/she is downloading is genuine and has not been tampered with. Each code signing certificate is counter-signed by a trusted certificate authority (CA) after the CA has conducted detailed checks that the vendor is a legitimate company. Back to index U User A person who uses a computer, including a programmer or end user. Back to index V Virtual Desktop The Virtual Desktop is a standalone sandbox featured in Comodo Internet Security which allows users to run any applications in a completely virtual environment. Software in the virtual desktop will not affect other processes, programs or data on the user's computer. Similarly, internet browsers running in the virtual desktop leave behind no personally identifying cookies or history on an employee's real system. The virtual desktop also features a virtual keyboard which provides additional security when entering usernames and passwords on website login pages. Although the virtual desktop is primarily intended for users to test unknown or beta software and for launching highly secure browsing sessions, it can be used to run most software. The virtual desktop interface is available in both desktop and tablet optimized versions. Back to index Virtual Machine (VM) Virtual machine is a software application that emulates a computing environment in which a program or an operating system can be installed and run. There are many advantages in using a VM such as for testing out new applications or procedures without affecting the host system. Back to index Virus A computer virus is an executable application capable of causing damage to computer files, folders and components. Viruses are also capable of self-replication so can infect multiple items on a system if left unchecked. The malicious activities performed by a virus are wide ranging and include stealing confidential information, modifying user data, overwriting or damaging files and erasing hard disk content. Back to index Viruscope Viruscope is an innovative subsystem that monitors all the processes running on a computer in real time to find any suspicious actions taken by any of the processes. If a suspicious activity is identified, Viruscope generates an alert. The alert allows the user to quickly block the process, reverse the effects of the action and move the parent application of the process to quarantine, if the activity is found to be malicious, or to allow the process, if the action is found to be legitimate. Virus Database A database of the digital signatures of all known computer viruses and malware. This database, sometimes referred to as a 'black list', enables antivirus software to detect any malware running on a customer's computer. Every time a file or executable is identified as being malware, antivirus companies will create a digital signature of the file and add it to their database of blacklisted files. This database is then distributed to their customers as an update to their antivirus software. If the blacklisted signature of the malware is found anywhere on a customers computer, then the file is flagged as infected and may be quarantined or deleted. Comodo has a dedicated team of technicians and crawlers that are continually searching for new virus strains to add to our database. Comodo's virus database is available for public download at to index Vulnerability In network security, a vulnerability refers to any flaw or weakness in the network defense that could be exploited to gain unauthorized access to, damage or otherwise affect the network. Back to index W Web server The term Web server can mean one of two things: 1. A computer that is responsible for accepting HTTP requests from clients, which are known as Web browsers, and serving them Web pages, which are usually HTML documents and linked objects (images, etc.). A computer program that provides the functionality described in the first sense of the term. Back to index Website Filtering Website Filtering is a security technique whereby access to specific websites can be selectively blocked or allowed to particular users of the computer. The website filtering is very useful for parental control as it allows to block inappropriate websites to juvenile users. Also, in work environments, administrators can prevent employees from visiting social networking sites during working hours. Back to index Wildcard Wildcards are symbols that add flexibility to a keyword search by extending the parameters of a search word. A wildcard item is usually denoted with the asterisk symbol, '*'. This stands for one-or-more characters (useful for all suffixes or prefixes). In digital certification terms, a 'wildcard certificate' means that the certificate will secure the domain plus unlimited sub-domains of that domain. A wildcard certificate is applied for using the format '*.domain.com'. Back to index Worm A Worm, another type of malware, unlike virus is capable of spreading from computer to computer without any human help. The worm with its capability to replicate itself several times over consumes most of the system memory causing the computer to slow down or crash altogether. It can also cause bandwidth jam while spreading to other computers in the network. Back to index X X.509 An internationally recognized standard for certificates that defines their required parts Back to index Z Zero-Day Malware Zero-day malware describes new computer viruses or worms that have been discovered in the public realm but which antivirus vendors have not yet created a digital signature for. The term means that the antivirus companies have had 'zero-days' to react. New malware can reasonably be called 'zero-day' for the the length of time between its discovery and the creation of a signature to combat it. For most antivirus vendors, this is usually measured in a matter of hours. Of course, the malware itself may have been at large for a much longer period of time before it was discovered. 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