System Tuning & Utilities

December 9, 2021 / Rating: 4.9 / Views: 608

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TuneUp Utilities 19.1.1209.0 for Windows - Download

TuneUp Utilities is an interesting application with the only goal of tuning up your PC. TuneUp Utilities includes more than 20 different tools organized into 5 different groups, so you'll access the right tools for each task you want to perform

System Tuning & Utilities
Most system tuning utilities for Windows provide memory optimizer as an option to clean up the RAM so that your PC can have a fresh start. These utilities also come with other tuning tools that might not be necessary to you. Maybe you just want the memory optimization feature. So here I’d like to present a tiny utility that can fulfill this particular purpose. This script has 4 different commands that will let you free up the memory in 4 different ways using the command prompt. I’ll also show how you can create a shortcut for these commands so that you can easily run these commands with a double click. How to clear cache memory in windows 10Follow four Step and you can better performance in your PC. An old and commonly reported trick to clear your Windows cache is to use a custom shortcut that “should” clear the cache in Windows 10 and older Windows versions. Unfortunately, this doesn’t actually clear your Windows memory cache, but it does instruct Windows to begin processing pending system “idle” tasks. This flow of data between the disk and the RAM is controlled by the computer, which manages the writing of data to physical locations on the memory chip, and that it needs a certain amount of free. The Ram is volatile memory, you’ll lose its contents when your computer turned off. Restarting your computer system will clear memory saved on RAM and reset all the running programs and applications. However, this method won’t clear the complete memory but it will boost up the processing speed of the system. Empty Standby List is a small command-line application that lets you free up memory on Windows Vista and above. Download and paste it in your command line root path. Or set the root path where the Empty Stand By file is. You should keep it in the C Drive (System drive) of your system. Now, there are 4 commands that you can run with this command line application. Empty Standby workingsets This command will clear the memory that is used by all the current running applications and process. This command is most commonly used by Memory Optimisation software. The Windows system will try to quickly swap the data from the paging file. So, it will make use of your storage disk to fetch the information from the programs and thereby will turn down overall performance. Empty Standby modifiedpagelist Now, here modified page files are those contents that must be written to the storage disk before they can be used again. If you see in the memory has those contents that are being held by the memory and are not in use. As shown in the above screenshot you can see the Standby memory section. The above command clears the lowest priority Standby memory content. You can set the priority by replacing the 0 in the command to any number between 1-7. Empty Standby standbylist And, this last command clear Standby memory regardless of what priority of content it has. To create a shortcut of a cmd command, right-click on your desktop and select Now, in the location field add the following string. If you’re not a command line enthusiast and prefer to do these task using a GUI then you got to use Sys Internal’s RAMmap. C: Windows System32/c Command Replace Command in the string with one of the command that you’d like run. It works pretty much the same with some extra control available. Next, you go to give this shortcut administrator privilege in order to work. We’ve shared on how you can do that in this article. ALSO SEE: Run Linux Based Programs on a Chromebook with roll App The above article may contain affiliate links which help support Guiding Tech. However, it does not affect our editorial integrity. Here's How to Use and Sync More Than One When your computer is running for quite some time, you will notice that it slows down due to idle processes. You can use this method to free up unused RAM and speed up your computer. It requires you to create a desktop shortcut and then open it to clear the memory cache. part may be reproduced in any form without explicit written permission. Different types of Scaffolding used for various types of construction. The 8 types of scaffoldings are trestle, steel, patented, suspended, cantilever, single, double, kwikstage scaffolding etc. To understand these Scaffoldings completely lets first learn its definition and then the uses of various Type of Scaffoldings, and their uses. In this blog you’ll find the most important scaffolding types with their images and explanation. By understanding the meaning, usage, purpose and results of each type of Scaffolding. You can easily select the various types of Scaffolding required for your construction work. This is also helpful in creating a safer environment for construction workers. Keep yourself updated from latest article about most trending products and share your thoughts.Different types of Scaffolding used for various types of construction. The 8 types of scaffoldings are trestle, steel, patented, suspended, cantilever, single, double, kwikstage scaffolding etc. To understand these Scaffoldings completely lets first learn its definition and then the uses of various Type of Scaffoldings, and their uses. In this blog you’ll find the most important scaffolding types with their images and explanation. By understanding the meaning, usage, purpose and results of each type of Scaffolding. You can easily select the various types of Scaffolding required for your construction work. This is also helpful in creating a safer environment for construction workers. Keep yourself updated from latest article about most trending products and share your thoughts. Scaffolding is an impermanent structure that works as a platform for the workers to perform the construction works while supporting the original structure. The Scaffolding structure changes depending on the type of construction and its requirements. It is essential that the Scaffolding is made from high quality material because it provides support for construction workers and the construction material. Wood or Metal (like steel) is used to construct Scaffolding for better performance. As the name suggests, this type of Scaffolding is supported on tripod type movable ladders. This scaffolding type is used primarily in indoors, like for repairs or painting works. The usage of Trestle Scaffolding is limited to indoors as the height in this Scaffolding is up to 5 meters only. Following its name, this Scaffolding type is created using steel tubes set by couplers and it is easy to assemble as well as disintegrate. Steel Scaffolding comes with vast benefits, thus has higher cost but it does provide higher safety standards during construction. The structure provides strength, durability and is fire resistant. Despite the cost, it is one of the most popular Scaffolding today owing to its benefits. Steel Scaffolding is mainly used for outdoor construction and bigger structures. This type of Scaffolding is also made using steel however, these are readymade Scaffoldings and are fitted with special couplings and frames etc. The readymade Scaffoldings are available in market and are ready to use once bought. When using the Patented Scaffolding, the working platform is set on the brackets, these brackets can be adjusted to the required level may differ according to scaffolding type. Suspended Scaffolding is used for a variety of repair works as well as painting. Mainly used in painting as the platform is adjustable to desired length multiple times. Suspended Scaffolding is created using rope or chains tied to the platform for the construction worker, which is then hanged from the roof with the height adjusted at desired level. Also known as, Single Frame Scaffolding, Cantilever Scaffolding has limited usage and requires various checks before the installation. In this Scaffolding system, the standards are supported by a chain of needles that are pulled out from the holes in the wall. There is another type of Cantilever Scaffolding, in which instead of wall the needles are supported inside the floors through the double frame Scaffolding. One needs to be very carefully and follow all the required steps when installing the Cantilever Scaffolding. Given below are the scenarios in which this type of Scaffolding is recommended: One of the basic and oldest methods used in Construction, Single scaffolding is mainly used for brick masonry. This type of Scaffolding includes standards, putlogs, ledgers, which links to the wall at a distance of 1.2 meters approximately. In addition, Ledgers join the standards at a vertical distance of 1.2 to 1.5 meters while the distance between the standards is 2 to 2.5 meters. Putlogs fixed at a distance of 1.2 to 1.5 meters, but extracted from gap in the wall at the end of the ledger. All these technical calculations when followed by book keep the structure sturdy and offer desired support. Double Scaffolding also known as the Independent Scaffolding, is the type of Scaffolding that is used mainly for the stone masonry job. It is very difficult to make holes in the stone walls for supporting the putlogs, hence two scaffoldings together create a sturdy structure for construction work. While the first row is 20 to 30 cm away from the wall, the second one is erected 1 meter far from the first row. With the support of both frames then putlogs are positioned. Additional steps are taken to make the structure firmer by adding cross braces and rakers. The last but not the least in the list is the Kwikstage Scaffolding system. This Scaffolding is contrived from hardwearing galvanized steel and is admired for its easy installation. Effortless to assemble as well as disintegrate, it is used for both big and small construction works. Kwikstage Scaffolding can easily replace regular scaffold system and provide safer and strong platform to work. Created using a durable and safe interlocking system, the patented Kwikstage modular system is customizable to any desired height. We offer Australia Scaffolding and are one of the most admired manufactures of scaffolding. Through this article, we have tried our best to keep the definitions simple, while adding images that clarifies any remaining doubts. The variety of Scaffoldings described here are some of the most used and successful Scaffoldings used in Construction. By understanding the meaning and the use of different type of Scaffoldings, one can easily select the right Scaffolding for their construction work with complete safety.There are number of programs, tools, and utilities which you can use to examine the status of your system. This chapter introduces some and describes their most important and frequently used parameters. The descriptions have been kept short so that we can include as many utilities as possible. Further information for all the commands can be found in the manual pages. Most of the commands also understand the parameter While most Linux system monitoring tools monitor only a single aspect of the system, there are a few tools with a broader scope. To get an overview and find out which part of the system to examine further, use these tools first. When called without values for delay and count, it displays average values since the last reboot. When called with a value for delay (in seconds), it displays values for the given period (two seconds in the examples below). The value for count specifies the number of updates vmstat should perform. If not specified, it will run until manually stopped. vmstat 2 procs -----------memory---------- ---swap-- -----io---- -system-- ------cpu----- r b swpd free buff cache si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa st 1 0 44264 81536 0 0 12 25 27 34 1 0 98 0 0 0 0 44264 81536 0 0 0 0 38 25 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 44264 81532 0 0 0 0 23 15 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 44264 81532 0 0 0 0 36 24 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 44264 81532 0 0 0 0 51 38 0 0 100 0 0vmstat 2 procs -----------memory----------- ---swap-- -----io---- -system-- -----cpu------ r b swpd free buff cache si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa st 32 1 26236 459640 110240 6312648 0 0 9944 2 4552 6597 95 5 0 0 0 23 1 26236 396728 110336 6136224 0 0 9588 0 4468 6273 94 6 0 0 0 35 0 26236 554920 110508 6166508 0 0 7684 27992 4474 4700 95 5 0 0 0 28 0 26236 518184 110516 6039996 0 0 10830 4 4446 4670 94 6 0 0 0 21 5 26236 716468 110684 6074872 0 0 8734 20534 4512 4061 96 4 0 0 0 Shows the number of processes in a runnable state. These processes are either executing or waiting for a free CPU slot. If the number of processes in this column is constantly higher than the number of CPUs available, this may be an indication of insufficient CPU power. values for prolonged periods of time are evidence of swap thrashing and may indicate that more RAM needs to be installed in the system because there is not enough memory to hold the working set size. Number of blocks per second received from a block device (for example, a disk read). Note that swapping also impacts the values shown here. The block size may vary between file systems but can be determined using the stat utility. If throughput data is required then iostat may be used. A high value may indicate a high I/O level (network and/or disk), but could also be triggered for other reasons such as inter-processor interrupts triggered by another activity. Make sure to also check If "wa" time is non-zero, it indicates throughput lost because of waiting for I/O. This may be inevitable, for example, if a file is being read for the first time, background writeback cannot keep up, and so on. It can also be an indicator for a hardware bottleneck (network or hard disk). Lastly, it can indicate a potential for tuning the virtual memory manager (refer to Chapter 14, displays information about the system resources in real time. For example, you can compare disk usage in combination with interrupts from the IDE controller, or compare network bandwidth with the disk throughput (in the same interval). By default, its output is presented in readable tables. Alternatively, CSV output can be produced which is suitable as a spreadsheet import format. It is written in Python and can be enhanced with plug-ins. This is the general syntax: You did not select any stats, using -cdngy by default. ----total-cpu-usage---- -dsk/total- -net/total- ---paging-- ---system-- usr sys idl wai hiq siq| read writ| recv send| in out | int csw 0 0 100 0 0 0| 15k 44k| 0 0 | 0 82B| 148 194 0 0 100 0 0 0| 0 0 |5430B 170B| 0 0 | 163 187 0 0 100 0 0 0| 0 0 |6363B 842B| 0 0 | 196 185sar 2 10 # on-the-fly report, 10 times every 2 seconds sar -f ~/reports/sar_2014_07_17 # queries file sar_2014_07_17 sar # queries file from today in /var/log/sa/ cd /var/log/sa && \ sar -f sa01 -f sa02 # queries files /var/log/sa/0[12]sar 10 5 Linux 4.4.21-64-default (jupiter) 10/12/16 _x86_64_ (2 CPU) CPU %user %nice %system %iowait %steal %idle all 57,93 0,00 9,58 1,01 0,00 31,47 all 32,71 0,00 3,79 0,05 0,00 63,45 all 47,23 0,00 3,66 0,00 0,00 49,11 all 53,33 0,00 4,88 0,05 0,00 41,74 all 56,98 0,00 5,65 0,10 0,00 37,27 Average: all 49,62 0,00 5,51 0,24 0,00 44,62 displays the percentage of time that the CPU was idle while waiting for an I/O request. If this value is significantly higher than zero over a longer time, there is a bottleneck in the I/O system (network or hard disk). If the sar -r 10 5 Linux 4.4.21-64-default (jupiter) 10/12/16 _x86_64_ (2 CPU) kbmemfree kbmemused %memused kbbuffers kbcached kbcommit %commit kbactive kbinact kbdirty 104232 1834624 94.62 20 627340 2677656 66.24 802052 828024 1744 98584 1840272 94.92 20 624536 2693936 66.65 808872 826932 2012 87088 1851768 95.51 20 605288 2706392 66.95 827260 821304 1588 86268 1852588 95.55 20 599240 2739224 67.77 829764 820888 3036 104260 1834596 94.62 20 599864 2730688 67.56 811284 821584 3164 Average: 96086 1842770 95.04 20 611254 2709579 67.03 815846 823746 2309sar -B 10 5 Linux 4.4.21-64-default (jupiter) 10/12/16 _x86_64_ (2 CPU) pgpgin/s pgpgout/s fault/s majflt/s pgfree/s pgscank/s pgscand/s pgsteal/s %vmeff 366.80 11.60 542.50 1.10 4354.80 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 333.30 1522.40 0.00 18132.40 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 47.20 127.40 1048.30 0.10 11887.30 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 46.40 2.50 336.10 0.10 7945.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 583.70 2037.20 0.00 17731.90 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Average: 92.08 211.70 1097.30 0.26 12010.28 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 (major faults per second) column shows how many pages are loaded from disk into memory. If major faults are experienced for the entire lifetime of the application it may be an indication that there is insufficient main memory, particularly if combined with large amounts of direct scanning (pgscand/s). It is a measurement of the efficiency of page reclaim. The source of the faults may be file accesses or faults. Healthy values are either near 100 (every inactive page swapped out is being reused) or 0 (no pages have been scanned). sar -d -p 10 5 Linux 4.4.21-64-default (jupiter) 10/12/16 _x86_64_ (2 CPU) DEV tps rd_sec/s wr_sec/s avgrq-sz avgqu-sz await svctm %util sda 1.70 33.60 0.00 19.76 0.00 0.47 0.47 0.08 sr0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 DEV tps rd_sec/s wr_sec/s avgrq-sz avgqu-sz await svctm %util sda 8.60 114.40 518.10 73.55 0.06 7.12 0.93 0.80 sr0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 DEV tps rd_sec/s wr_sec/s avgrq-sz avgqu-sz await svctm %util sda 40.50 3800.80 454.90 105.08 0.36 8.86 0.69 2.80 sr0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 DEV tps rd_sec/s wr_sec/s avgrq-sz avgqu-sz await svctm %util sda 1.40 0.00 204.90 146.36 0.00 0.29 0.29 0.04 sr0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 DEV tps rd_sec/s wr_sec/s avgrq-sz avgqu-sz await svctm %util sda 3.30 0.00 503.80 152.67 0.03 8.12 1.70 0.56 sr0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Average: DEV tps rd_sec/s wr_sec/s avgrq-sz avgqu-sz await svctm %util Average: sda 11.10 789.76 336.34 101.45 0.09 8.07 0.77 0.86 Average: sr0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 columns could be an indication that I/O subsystem is a bottleneck. If the machine uses multiple disks, then it is best if I/O is interleaved evenly between disks of equal speed and capacity. It will be necessary to take into account whether the storage has multiple tiers. k Sar takes data generated on the fly and past data from a file. Furthermore, if there are multiple paths to storage then consider what the link saturation will be when balancing how storage is used. k Sar is licensed under the BSD license and is available from https://sourceforge.net/projects/ksar/. iostat Linux 4.4.21-64-default (jupiter) 10/12/16 _x86_64_ (4 CPU) avg-cpu: %user %nice %system %iowait %steal %idle 17.68 4.49 4.24 0.29 0.00 73.31 Device: tps k B_read/s k B_wrtn/s k B_read k B_wrtn sdb 2.02 36.74 45.73 3544894 4412392 sda 1.05 5.12 13.47 493753 1300276 sdc 0.02 0.14 0.00 13641 37. Extended reports additionally include, for example, information on average queue sizes and average wait times. It may also be easier to evaluate the data if idle block devices are excluded using the mpstat 2 5 Linux 4.4.21-64-default (jupiter) 10/12/16 _x86_64_ (2 CPU) CPU %usr %nice %sys %iowait %irq %soft %steal %guest %gnice %idle all 8,27 0,00 0,50 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 91,23 all 46,62 0,00 3,01 0,00 0,00 0,25 0,00 0,00 0,00 50,13 all 54,71 0,00 3,82 0,00 0,00 0,51 0,00 0,00 0,00 40,97 all 78,77 0,00 5,12 0,00 0,00 0,77 0,00 0,00 0,00 15,35 all 51,65 0,00 4,30 0,00 0,00 0,51 0,00 0,00 0,00 43,54 Average: all 47,85 0,00 3,34 0,00 0,00 0,40 0,00 0,00 0,00 48,41 shows frequencies, load, temperature, and power of AMD64/Intel 64 processors. It can operate in two modes: If called with a command, the command process is forked and statistics are displayed upon command completion. When run without a command, it will display updated statistics every five seconds. Note that turbostat find /etc -type d -exec true \; 0.546880 sec CPU Avg_MHz Busy% Bzy_MHz TSC_MHz - 416 28.43 1465 3215 0 631 37.29 1691 3215 1 416 27.14 1534 3215 2 270 24.30 1113 3215 3 406 26.57 1530 3214 4 505 32.46 1556 3214 5 270 22.79 1184 3214 command. It prints activity of every selected task or all tasks managed by Linux kernel if no task is specified. You can also set the number of reports to be displayed and the time interval between them. For example, pidstat -C firefox 2 3 Linux 4.4.21-64-default (jupiter) 10/12/16 _x86_64_ (2 CPU) UID PID %usr %system %guest %CPU CPU Command 1000 387 22,77 0,99 0,00 23,76 1 firefox UID PID %usr %system %guest %CPU CPU Command 1000 387 46,50 3,00 0,00 49,50 1 firefox UID PID %usr %system %guest %CPU CPU Command 1000 387 60,50 7,00 0,00 67,50 1 firefox Average: UID PID %usr %system %guest %CPU CPU Command Average: 1000 387 43,19 3,65 0,00 46,84 - firefoxlsof -p $$ COMMAND PID USER FD TYPE DEVICE SIZE/OFF NODE NAME bash 8842 root cwd DIR 0, /root bash 8842 root rtd DIR 0,32 166 256 / bash 8842 root txt REG 0,32 656584 31066 /bin/bash bash 8842 root mem REG 0,32 1978832 22993 /lib64/libc-2.19[...] bash 8842 root 2u CHR 136,2 0t0 5 /dev/pts/2 bash 8842 root 255u CHR 136,2 0t0 5 /dev/pts/2lsof -i COMMAND PID USER FD TYPE DEVICE SIZE/OFF NODE NAME wickedd-d 917 root 8u IPv4 16627 0t0 UDP *:bootpc wickedd-d 918 root 8u IPv6 20752 0t0 UDP [fe80::5054:ff:fe72:5ead]:dhcpv6-client sshd 3152 root 3u IPv4 18618 0t0 TCP *:ssh (LISTEN) sshd 3152 root 4u IPv6 18620 0t0 TCP *:ssh (LISTEN) master 4746 root 13u IPv4 20588 0t0 TCP localhost:smtp (LISTEN) master 4746 root 14u IPv6 20589 0t0 TCP localhost:smtp (LISTEN) sshd 8837 root 5u IPv4 293709 0t0 TCP de:ssh-UEVENT[1138806687] [email protected]/devices/pci00/00:1d.7/usb4/4-2/4-2.2 UEVENT[1138806687] [email protected]/devices/pci00/00:1d.7/usb4/4-2/4-2.2/4-2.2 UEVENT[1138806687] [email protected]/class/scsi_host/host4 UEVENT[1138806687] [email protected]/class/usb_device/usbdev4.10 UDEV [1138806687] [email protected]/devices/pci00/00:1d.7/usb4/4-2/4-2.2 UDEV [1138806687] [email protected]/devices/pci00/00:1d.7/usb4/4-2/4-2.2/4-2.2 UDEV [1138806687] [email protected]/class/scsi_host/host4 UDEV [1138806687] [email protected]/class/usb_device/usbdev4.10 UEVENT[1138806692] [email protected]/devices/pci00/00:1d.7/usb4/4-2/4-2.2/4-2.2 UEVENT[1138806692] [email protected]/block/sdb UEVENT[1138806692] [email protected]/class/scsi_generic/sg1 UEVENT[1138806692] [email protected]/class/scsi_device/4:0:0:0 UDEV [1138806693] [email protected]/devices/pci00/00:1d.7/usb4/4-2/4-2.2/4-2.2 UDEV [1138806693] [email protected]/class/scsi_generic/sg1 UDEV [1138806693] [email protected]/class/scsi_device/4:0:0:0 UDEV [1138806693] [email protected]/block/sdb UEVENT[1138806694] [email protected]/block/sdb/sdb1 UDEV [1138806694] [email protected]/block/sdb/sdb1 UEVENT[1138806694] [email protected]/block/sdb/sdb1 UEVENT[1138806697] [email protected]/block/sdb/sdb1ipcs ------ Message Queues -------- key msqid owner perms used-bytes messages ------ Shared Memory Segments -------- key shmid owner perms bytes nattch status 0x00000000 65536 tux 600 524288 2 dest 0x00000000 98305 tux 600 4194304 2 dest 0x00000000 884738 root 600 524288 2 dest 0x00000000 786435 tux 600 4194304 2 dest 0x00000000 12058628 tux 600 524288 2 dest 0x00000000 917509 root 600 524288 2 dest 0x00000000 12353542 tux 600 196608 2 dest 0x00000000 12451847 tux 600 524288 2 dest 0x00000000 11567114 root 600 262144 1 dest 0x00000000 10911763 tux 600 2097152 2 dest 0x00000000 11665429 root 600 2336768 2 dest 0x00000000 11698198 root 600 196608 2 dest 0x00000000 11730967 root 600 524288 2 dest ------ Semaphore Arrays -------- key semid owner perms nsems 0xa12e0919 32768 tux 666 2ps axu USER PID %CPU %MEM VSZ RSS TTY STAT START TIME COMMAND root 1 0.0 0.3 34376 4608 ? Sps ax --format pid,rss,cmd --sort rss PID RSS CMD PID RSS CMD 2 0 [kthreadd] 3 0 [ksoftirqd/0] 4 0 [kworker/0:0] 5 0 [kworker/0:0H] 6 0 [kworker/u2:0] 7 0 [migration/0] 8 0 [rcu_bh] [...] 12518 22996 /usr/lib/gnome-settings-daemon-3.0/gnome-settings-daemon 12626 23540 /usr/bin/nautilus --no-default-window 12305 32188 /usr/bin/Xorg :0 -background none -verbose 12594 164900 /usr/bin/gnome-shellpstree systemd---accounts-daemon--- | |- |-at-spi-bus-laun---dbus-daemon | |- | |- | |- |-at-spi2-registr--- |-cron |-2*[dbus-daemon] |-dbus-launch |-dconf-service--- | |- |-gconfd-2 |-gdm---gdm-simple-slav---Xorg | | |-gdm-session-wor---gnome-session---gnome-setti | | | | |-gnome-shell | | | | |-{dconf work | | | | |- | | | | |- | | | |- | | | |- | | |- | | |- | |- | |- [...]top -n 1 Tasks: 128 total, 1 running, 127 sleeping, 0 stopped, 0 zombie %Cpu(s): 2.4 us, 1.2 sy, 0.0 ni, 96.3 id, 0.1 wa, 0.0 hi, 0.0 si, 0.0 st Ki B Mem: 1535508 total, 699948 used, 835560 free, 880 buffers Ki B Swap: 1541116 total, 0 used, 1541116 free. Ss Jul24 /usr/lib/systemd/systemd root 2 0.0 0.0 0 0 ? 377000 cached Mem PID USER PR NI VIRT RES SHR S %CPU %MEM TIME COMMAND 1 root 20 0 116292 4660 2028 S 0.000 0.303 .45 systemd 2 root 20 0 0 0 0 S 0.000 0.000 .00 kthreadd 3 root 20 0 0 0 0 S 0.000 0.000 .07 ksoftirqd 5 root 0 -20 0 0 0 S 0.000 0.000 .00 kworker/0 6 root 20 0 0 0 0 S 0.000 0.000 .00 kworker/u 7 root rt 0 0 0 0 S 0.000 0.000 .00 migration 8 root 20 0 0 0 0 S 0.000 0.000 .00 rcu_bh 9 root 20 0 0 0 0 S 0.000 0.000 .24 rcu_sched 10 root rt 0 0 0 0 S 0.000 0.000 .01 watchdog/0 11 root 0 -20 0 0 0 S 0.000 0.000 .00 khelper 12 root 20 0 0 0 0 S 0.000 0.000 .00 kdevtmpfs 13 root 0 -20 0 0 0 S 0.000 0.000 .00 netns 14 root 0 -20 0 0 0 S 0.000 0.000 .00 writeback 15 root 0 -20 0 0 0 S 0.000 0.000 .00 kintegrit 16 root 0 -20 0 0 0 S 0.000 0.000 .00 bioset 17 root 0 -20 0 0 0 S 0.000 0.000 .00 crypto 18 root 0 -20 0 0 0 S 0.000 0.000 .00 kblockd displays columns for the I/O bandwidth read and written by each process during the sampling period. It also displays the percentage of time the process spent while swapping in and while waiting on I/O. For each process, its I/O priority (class/level) is shown. In addition, the total I/O bandwidth read and written during the sampling period is displayed at the top of the interface. Adjusting the niceness level is useful when running a non time-critical process that lasts long and uses large amounts of CPU time. For example, compiling a kernel on a system that also performs other tasks. Making such a process Mem Total: 1942636 k B Mem Free: 1294352 k B Mem Available: 1458744 k B Buffers: 876 k B Cached: 278476 k B Swap Cached: 0 k B Active: 368328 k B Inactive: 199368 k B Active(anon): 288968 k B Inactive(anon): 10568 k B Active(file): 79360 k B Inactive(file): 188800 k B Unevictable: 80 k B Mlocked: 80 k B Swap Total: 2103292 k B Swap Free: 2103292 k B Dirty: 44 k B Writeback: 0 k B Anon Pages: 288592 k B Mapped: 70444 k B Shmem: 11192 k B Slab: 40916 k B SReclaimable: 17712 k B SUnreclaim: 23204 k B Kernel Stack: 2000 k B Page Tables: 10996 k B NFS_Unstable: 0 k B Bounce: 0 k B Writeback Tmp: 0 k B Commit Limit: 3074608 k B Committed_AS: 1407208 k B Vmalloc Total: 34359738367 k B Vmalloc Used: 145996 k B Vmalloc Chunk: 34359588844 k B Hardware Corrupted: 0 k B Anon Huge Pages: 86016 k B Huge Pages_Total: 0 Huge Pages_Free: 0 Huge Pages_Rsvd: 0 Huge Pages_Surp: 0 Hugepagesize: 2048 k B Direct Map4k: 79744 k B Direct Map2M: 2017280 k B Amount of memory waiting to be written to disk, because it contains changes compared to the backing storage. Dirty data can be explicitly synchronized either by the application or by the kernel after a short delay. A large amount of dirty data may take considerable time to write to disk resulting in stalls. The total amount of dirty data that can exist at any time can be controlled with the is using at that time. It differentiates between shared and private memory, so you can see how much memory the process is using without including memory shared with other processes. For more information see numa TOP is a tool for NUMA (Non-uniform Memory Access) systems. The tool helps to identify NUMA-related performance bottlenecks by providing real-time analysis of a NUMA system. Generally speaking, numa TOP allows you to identify and investigate processes and threads with poor locality (that is poor ratio of local versus remote memory usage) by analyzing the number of Remote Memory Accesses (RMA), the number of Local Memory Accesses (LMA), and the RMA/LMA ratio. numa TOP is supported on Power PC and the following Intel Xeon processors: 5500-series, 6500/7500-series, 5600-series, E7-x8xx-series, and E5-16xx/24xx/26xx/46xx-series. root unknown TCP 0.000 0.000 KB/sec TOTAL 5.916 394.192 KB/secethtool eth0 Settings for eth0: Supported ports: [ TP ] Supported link modes: 10base T/Half 10base T/Full 100base T/Half 100base T/Full 1000base T/Full Supports auto-negotiation: Yes Advertised link modes: 10base T/Half 10base T/Full 100base T/Half 100base T/Full 1000base T/Full Advertised pause frame use: No [...] Link detected: yesss Netid State Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address: Port Peer Address: Port u_str ESTAB 0 0 * 14082 * 14083 u_str ESTAB 0 0 * 18582 * 18583 u_str ESTAB 0 0 * 19449 * 19450 u_str ESTAB 0 0 @/tmp/dbus-gm UUw XABPV 18784 * 18783 u_str ESTAB 0 0 /var/run/dbus/system_bus_socket 19383 * 19382 u_str ESTAB 0 0 @/tmp/dbus-gm UUw XABPV 18617 * 18616 u_str ESTAB 0 0 @/tmp/dbus-58TPPDv8qv 19352 * 19351 u_str ESTAB 0 0 * 17658 * 17657 u_str ESTAB 0 0 * 17693 * 17694 [..]ss -l Netid State Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address: Port Peer Address: Port nl UNCONN 0 0 rtnl:4195117 * nl UNCONN 0 0 rtnl:wickedd-auto4/811 * nl UNCONN 0 0 rtnl:wickedd-dhcp4/813 * nl UNCONN 0 0 rtnl:4195121 * nl UNCONN 0 0 rtnl:4195115 * nl UNCONN 0 0 rtnl:wickedd-dhcp6/814 * nl UNCONN 0 0 rtnl:kernel * nl UNCONN 0 0 rtnl:wickedd/817 * nl UNCONN 0 0 rtnl:4195118 * nl UNCONN 0 0 rtnl:nscd/706 * nl UNCONN 4352 0 tcpdiag:ss/2381 * [...]ss -t -a -p State Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address: Port Peer Address: Port LISTEN 0 128 *:ssh *:* users:(("sshd",1551,3)) LISTEN 0 100 127.0.0.1:smtp *:* users:(("master",1704,13)) ESTAB 0 132 10.1:ssh 10.120.4.1715 users:(("sshd",2103,5)) LISTEN 0 128 :::ssh :::* users:(("sshd",1551,4)) LISTEN 0 100 ::1:smtp :::* users:(("master",1704,14))cat /proc/cpuinfo processor : 0 vendor_id : Genuine Intel cpu family : 6 model : 30 model name : Intel(R) Core(TM) i5 CPU 750 @ 2.67GHz stepping : 5 microcode : 0x6 cpu MHz : 1197.000 cache size : 8192 KB physical id : 0 siblings : 4 core id : 0 cpu cores : 4 apicid : 0 initial apicid : 0 fpu : yes fpu_exception : yes cpuid level : 11 wp : yes flags : fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic sep mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush dts acpi mmx fxsr sse sse2 ss ht tm pbe syscall nx rdtscp lm constant_tsc arch_perfmon pebs bts rep_good nopl xtopology nonstop_tsc aperfmperf pni dtes64 monitor ds_cpl vmx smx est tm2 ssse3 cx16 xtpr pdcm sse4_1 sse4_2 popcnt lahf_lm ida dtherm tpr_shadow vnmi flexpriority ept vpid bogomips : 5333.85 clflush size : 64 cache_alignment : 64 address sizes : 36 bits physical, 48 bits virtual power management: [...]cat /proc/interrupts CPU0 CPU1 CPU2 CPU3 0: 121 0 0 0 IO-APIC-edge timer 8: 0 0 0 1 IO-APIC-edge rtc0 9: 0 0 0 0 IO-APIC-fasteoi acpi 16: 0 11933 0 0 IO-APIC-fasteoi ehci_hcd: 18: 0 0 0 0 IO-APIC-fasteoi i801_smbus 19: 0 117978 0 0 IO-APIC-fasteoi ata_piix, 22: 0 0 3275185 0 IO-APIC-fasteoi enp5s1 23: 417927 0 0 0 IO-APIC-fasteoi ehci_hcd: 40: 2727916 0 0 0 HPET_MSI-edge hpet2 41: 0 2749134 0 0 HPET_MSI-edge hpet3 42: 0 0 2759148 0 HPET_MSI-edge hpet4 43: 0 0 0 2678206 HPET_MSI-edge hpet5 45: 0 0 0 0 PCI-MSI-edge aerdrv, P 46: 0 0 0 0 PCI-MSI-edge PCIe PME, 47: 0 0 0 0 PCI-MSI-edge PCIe PME, 48: 0 0 0 0 PCI-MSI-edge PCIe PME, 49: 0 0 0 387 PCI-MSI-edge snd_hda_i 50: 933117 0 0 0 PCI-MSI-edge nvidia NMI: 2102 2023 2031 1920 Non-maskable interrupts LOC: 92 71 57 41 Local timer interrupts SPU: 0 0 0 0 Spurious interrupts PMI: 2102 2023 2031 1920 Performance monitoring int IWI: 47331 45725 52464 46775 IRQ work interrupts RTR: 2 0 0 0 APIC ICR read retries RES: 472911 396463 339792 323820 Rescheduling interrupts CAL: 48389 47345 54113 50478 Function call interrupts TLB: 28410 26804 24389 26157 TLB shootdowns TRM: 0 0 0 0 Thermal event interrupts THR: 0 0 0 0 Threshold APIC interrupts MCE: 0 0 0 0 Machine check exceptions MCP: 40 40 40 40 Machine check polls ERR: 0 MIS: 0cat /proc/self/maps 08048000-0804c000 r-xp 00000000 17753 /bin/cat 0804c000-0804d000 rw-p 00004000 17753 /bin/cat 0804d000-0806e000 rw-p 0804d000 0 [heap] b7d27000-b7d5a000 r--p 00000000 11867 /usr/lib/locale/en_GB.utf8/ b7d5a000-b7e32000 r--p 00000000 11868 /usr/lib/locale/en_GB.utf8/ b7e32000-b7e33000 rw-p b7e32000 0 b7e33000-b7f45000 r-xp 00000000 8837 /lib/libc-2.3.6b7f45000-b7f46000 r--p 00112000 8837 /lib/libc-2.3.6b7f46000-b7f48000 rw-p 00113000 8837 /lib/libc-2.3.6b7f48000-b7f4c000 rw-p b7f48000 0 b7f52000-b7f53000 r--p 00000000 11842 /usr/lib/locale/en_GB.utf8/ [...] b7f5b000-b7f61000 r--s 00000000 9109 /usr/lib/gconv/gconv-module b7f61000-b7f62000 r--p 00000000 9720 /usr/lib/locale/en_GB.utf8/ b7f62000-b7f76000 r-xp 00000000 8828 /lib/ld-2.3.6b7f76000-b7f78000 rw-p 00013000 8828 /lib/ld-2.3.6bfd61000-bfd76000 rw-p bfd61000 0 [stack] ffffe000-fffff000 ---p 00000000 0 [vdso]procinfo Linux 3.11.10-17-desktop ([email protected]) (gcc 4.8.1 20130909) #1 4CPU [jupiter.example.com] Memory: Total Used Free Shared Buffers Cached Mem: 8181908 8000632 181276 0 85472 2850872 Swap: 10481660 1576 10480084 Bootup: Mon Jul 28 2014 Load average: 1.61 0.85 0.74 2/904 25949 user : .84 12.7% page in : 2107312 disk 1: 52212r 20199w nice : .46 0.0% page out: 1714461 disk 2: 19387r 10928w system: .00 2.8% page act: 466673 disk 3: 548r 10w IOwait: .45 0.4% page dea: 272297 hw irq: .42 0.0% page flt: 105754526 sw irq: .48 0.1% swap in : 0 idle : .65 81.5% swap out: 394 guest : .59 0.2% uptime: .24 context : 99809844 irq 0: 121 timer irq 41: 3238224 hpet3 irq 8: 1 rtc0 irq 42: 3251898 hpet4 irq 9: 0 acpi irq 43: 3156368 hpet5 irq 16: 14589 ehci_hcd:usb1 irq 45: 0 aerdrv, PCIe PME irq 18: 0 i801_smbus irq 46: 0 PCIe PME, pciehp irq 19: 124861 ata_piix, ata_piix, f irq 47: 0 PCIe PME, pciehp irq 22: 3742817 enp5s1 irq 48: 0 PCIe PME, pciehp irq 23: 479248 ehci_hcd:usb2 irq 49: 387 snd_hda_intel irq 40: 3216894 hpet2 irq 50: 1088673 nvidialspci .0 Host bridge: Intel Corporation 82845G/GL[Brookdale-G]/GE/PE \ DRAM Controller/Host-Hub Interface (rev 01) .0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 82845G/GL[Brookdale-G]/GE/PE \ Host-to-AGP Bridge (rev 01) 00:1d.0 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801DB/DBL/DBM \ (ICH4/ICH4-L/ICH4-M) USB UHCI Controller #1 (rev 01) 00:1d.1 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801DB/DBL/DBM \ (ICH4/ICH4-L/ICH4-M) USB UHCI Controller #2 (rev 01) 00:1d.2 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801DB/DBL/DBM \ (ICH4/ICH4-L/ICH4-M) USB UHCI Controller #3 (rev 01) 00:1d.7 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801DB/DBM \ (ICH4/ICH4-M) USB2 EHCI Controller (rev 01) 00:1e.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 82801 PCI Bridge (rev 81) 00:1f.0 ISA bridge: Intel Corporation 82801DB/DBL (ICH4/ICH4-L) \ LPC Interface Bridge (rev 01) 00:1f.1 IDE interface: Intel Corporation 82801DB (ICH4) IDE \ Controller (rev 01) 00:1f.3 SMBus: Intel Corporation 82801DB/DBL/DBM (ICH4/ICH4-L/ICH4-M) \ SMBus Controller (rev 01) 00:1f.5 Multimedia audio controller: Intel Corporation 82801DB/DBL/DBM \ (ICH4/ICH4-L/ICH4-M) AC'97 Audio Controller (rev 01) .0 VGA compatible controller: Matrox Graphics, Inc. numa TOP is available in the official software repositories, and you can install the tool using the is a powerful tool to set up and control network interfaces. G400/G450 (rev 85) .0 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82801DB PRO/100 VE (LOM) \ Ethernet Controller (rev 81)lspci -v [...] .0 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82540EM Gigabit Ethernet \ Controller (rev 02) Subsystem: Intel Corporation PRO/1000 MT Desktop Adapter Flags: bus master, 66MHz, medium devsel, latency 64, IRQ 19 Memory at f0000000 (32-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=128K] I/O ports at d010 [size=8] Capabilities: [dc] Power Management version 2 Capabilities: [e4] PCI-X non-bridge device Kernel driver in use: e1000 Kernel modules: e1000lsusb Bus 004 Device 007: ID 0ea68 Ours Technology, Inc. You can also use it to quickly view basic statistics about network interfaces of the system. Transcend Jet Flash \ 2.0 / Astone USB Drive Bus 004 Device 006: ID 04b30 Cypress Semiconductor Corp. For example, whether the interface is up or how many errors, dropped packets, or packet collisions there are. USB-2.0 IDE \ Adapter Bus 004 Device 005: ID 05e05 Genesys Logic, Inc. If you run ip -s link show br0 6: br0: mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UP mode DEFAULT link/ether :d:d brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff RX: bytes packets errors dropped overrun mcast 6346104756 9265517 0 10860 0 0 TX: bytes packets errors dropped carrier collsns 3996204683 3655523 0 0 0 0ip route default via 192.168.2.1 dev eth1 192.168.2.0/24 dev eth0 proto kernel scope link src 192.168.2.100 192.168.2.0/24 dev eth1 proto kernel scope link src 192.168.2.101 192.168.2.0/24 dev eth2 proto kernel scope link src 192.168.2.16 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT group default link/loopback : brd : 2: eth0: mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP mode DEFAULT group default qlen 1000 link/ether : brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff 3: eth1: mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP mode DEFAULT group default qlen 1000 link/ether :a3:c1:fb brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff 4: eth2: mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP mode DEFAULT group default qlen 1000 link/ether :32:a brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff PID USER PROGRAM DEV SENT RECEIVED 27145 root zypper eth0 5.719 391.749 KB/sec ? Bus 004 Device 001: ID 0000 Bus 003 Device 001: ID 0000 Bus 002 Device 001: ID 0000 Bus 001 Device 005: ID 046d:c012 Logitech, Inc. root ..c0:015 0.102 2.326 KB/sec 26635 tux /usr/lib64/firefox/firefox eth0 0.026 0.026 KB/sec ? Optical Mouse Bus 001 Device 001: ID 0000┌──────THERMAL ZONES(SENSORS)──────────────────────────────┐ │Thermal Zones: acpitz00 │ │Trip Points: PC │ └──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘ ┌─────────── COOLING DEVICES ──────────────────────────────┐ │ID Cooling Dev Cur Max Thermal Zone Binding │ │00 Processor 0 3 ││││││││││││ │ │01 Processor 0 3 ││││││││││││ │ │02 Processor 0 3 ││││││││││││ │ │03 Processor 0 3 ││││││││││││ │ │04 intel_powerc -1 50 ││││││││││││ │ └──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘ ┌──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐ │ 10 20 30 40 │ │acpitz 0:[ 8][P9 C31 │ └──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘ ┌────────────────── CONTROLS ──────────────────────────────┐ │PID gain: kp=0.36 ki=5.00 kd=0.19 Output 0.00 │ │Target Temp: 65.0C, Zone: 0, Control Device: None │ └──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘ Ctrl-c - Quit TAB - Tuning package logs and parses/translates Machine Check Exceptions (MCE) on hardware errors, including I/O, CPU, and memory errors. In addition, mcelog handles predictive bad page offlining and automatic core offlining when cache errors happen. Formerly this was managed by a cron job executed hourly. Now hardware errors are immediately processed by an mcelog daemon. supports AMD's Scalable Machine Check Architecture (Scalable MCA). Scalable MCA improves hardware error reporting in AMD Zen processors. It expands information logged in MCA banks for improved error handling and better diagnosability. Handle 0x0000, DMI type 4, 35 bytes Processor Information Socket Designation: J1PR Type: Central Processor Family: Other Manufacturer: Intel(R) Corporation ID: E5 06 01 00 FF FB EB BF Version: Intel(R) Core(TM) i5 CPU 750 @ 2.67GHz Voltage: 1.1 V External Clock: 133 MHz Max Speed: 4000 MHz Current Speed: 2667 MHz Status: Populated, Enabled Upgrade: Other L1 Cache Handle: 0x0004 L2 Cache Handle: 0x0003 L3 Cache Handle: 0x0001 Serial Number: Not Specified Asset Tag: Not Specified Part Number: Not Specified [..]mount /dev/sda2 on / type ext4 (rw,acl,user_xattr) proc on /proc type proc (rw) sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw) debugfs on /sys/kernel/debug type debugfs (rw) devtmpfs on /dev type devtmpfs (rw,mode=0755) tmpfs on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw,mode=1777) devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,mode=0620,gid=5) /dev/sda3 on /home type ext3 (rw) securityfs on /sys/kernel/security type securityfs (rw) fusectl on /sys/fs/fuse/connections type fusectl (rw) gvfs-fuse-daemon on /home/tux/type fuse.gvfs-fuse-daemon \ (rw,nosuid,nodev,user=tux)readelf --file-header /bin/ls ELF Header: Magic: 7f 45 4c 46 02 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 Class: ELF64 Data: 2's complement, little endian Version: 1 (current) OS/ABI: UNIX - System V ABI Version: 0 Type: EXEC (Executable file) Machine: Advanced Micro Devices X86-64 Version: 0x1 Entry point address: 0x402540 Start of program headers: 64 (bytes into file) Start of section headers: 95720 (bytes into file) Flags: 0x0 Size of this header: 64 (bytes) Size of program headers: 56 (bytes) Number of program headers: 9 Size of section headers: 64 (bytes) Number of section headers: 32 Section header string table index: 31stat /etc/profile File: `/etc/profile' Size: 9662 Blocks: 24 IO Block: 4096 regular file Device: 802h/2050d Inode: 132349 Links: 1 Access: (0644/-rw-r--r--) Uid: ( 0/ root) Gid: ( 0/ root) Access: 2009-03-20 .000000000 0100 Modify: 2009-01-08 .000000000 0100 Change: 2009-03-18 .000000000 0100stat /etc/profile --file-system File: "/etc/profile" ID: d4fb76e70b4d1746 Namelen: 255 Type: ext2/ext3 Block size: 4096 Fundamental block size: 4096 Blocks: Total: 2581445 Free: 1717327 Available: 1586197 Inodes: Total: 655776 Free: 490312w up 1 day, , 3 users, load average: 0.00, 0.01, 0.05 USER TTY FROM [email protected] IDLE JCPU PCPU WHAT tux :0 console Wed13 ? 0.03s /usr/lib/gdm/gd tux console :0 Wed13 m 0.00s 0.03s /usr/lib/gdm/gd tux pts/0 :0 Wed13 0.10s 2.89s /usr/lib/gnome- /dev/null Command being timed: "find ." User time (seconds): 0.24 System time (seconds): 2.08 Percent of CPU this job got: 25% Elapsed (wall clock) time (h:mm:ss or m:ss): .03 Average shared text size (kbytes): 0 Average unshared data size (kbytes): 0 Average stack size (kbytes): 0 Average total size (kbytes): 0 Maximum resident set size (kbytes): 2516 Average resident set size (kbytes): 0 Major (requiring I/O) page faults: 0 Minor (reclaiming a frame) page faults: 1564 Voluntary context switches: 36660 Involuntary context switches: 496 Swaps: 0 File system inputs: 0 File system outputs: 0 Socket messages sent: 0 Socket messages received: 0 Signals delivered: 0 Page size (bytes): 4096 Exit status: 0 There are a lot of data in the world around you, which can be easily measured in time. daemon = yes filter = yes filter-memory-errors = yes no-syslog = yes logfile = /var/log/mcelog run-credentials-user = root run-credentials-group = nobody client-group = root socket-path = /var/run/mcelog-clientdmidecode # dmidecode 2.12 SMBIOS 2.5 present. For example, changes in the temperature, or the number of data sent or received by your computer's network interface. RRDtool can help you store and visualize such data in detailed and customizable graphs. RRDtool is available for most Unix platforms and Linux distributions. is a method for manipulating with a constant amount of data. It uses the principle of a circular buffer, where there is no end nor beginning to the data row which is being read. RRDtool uses Round Robin Databases to store and read its data. As mentioned above, RRDtool is designed to work with data that change in time. The ideal case is a sensor which repeatedly reads measured data (like temperature, speed etc.) in constant periods of time, and then exports them in a given format. Such data are perfectly ready for RRDtool, and it is easy to process them and create the desired output. Sometimes it is not possible to obtain the data automatically and regularly. Their format needs to be pre-processed before it is supplied to RRDtool, and often you need to manipulate RRDtool even manually. The following is a simple example of basic RRDtool usage. It illustrates all three important phases of the usual RRDtool workflow: Suppose we want to collect and view information about the memory usage in the Linux system as it changes in time. To make the example more vivid, we measure the currently free memory over a period of 40 seconds in 4-second intervals. Three applications that usually consume a lot of system memory are started and closed: the Firefox Web browser, the Evolution e-mail client, and the Eclipse development framework. RRDtool is very often used to measure and visualize network traffic. In such case, the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is used. This protocol can query network devices for relevant values of their internal counters. Exactly these values are to be stored with RRDtool. Our situation is different—we need to obtain the data manually. A helper script sh free_rrdtool update free_1272974882994432 rrdtool update free_1272974862817536 rrdtool update free_1272974896269824 rrdtool update free_1272974834219520 rrdtool update free_127297489438976 rrdtool update free_127297482454656 rrdtool update free_127297489120512 rrdtool update free_1272974880377088 rrdtool update free_1272974879369472 rrdtool update free_1272974881806592 We have already measured the values, created the database, and stored the measured value in it. Now we can play with the database, and retrieve or view its values. To retrieve all the values from our database, enter the following on the command line: rrdtool fetch free_AVERAGE --start 1272974830 \ --end 1272974871 memory 1272974832: nan 1272974836: 1.1729059840e 09 1272974840: 1.1461806080e 09 1272974844: 1.0807572480e 09 1272974848: 1.0030243840e 09 1272974852: 8.9019289600e 08 1272974856: 8.3162112000e 08 1272974860: 9.1693465600e 08 1272974864: 1.1801251840e 09 1272974868: 1.1799787520e 09 1272974872: nanrrdtool graph free_\ --start 1272974830 \ --end 1272974871 \ --step=4 \ DEF:free_memory=free_mem.rrd:memory: AVERAGE \ LINE2:free_memory#FF0000 \ --vertical-label "GB" \ --title "Free System Memory in Time" \ --zoom 1.5 \ --x-grid SECOND:1: SECOND:4: SECOND:10:0:%X RRDtool is a very complex tool with a lot of sub-commands and command line options. Some are easy to understand, but to make it produce the results you want and fine-tune them according to your liking may require a lot of effort. Apart from RRDtool's man page ( command and all its sub-commands. There are also several tutorials to help you understand the common RRDtool workflow. If you are interested in monitoring network traffic, have a look at MRTG (Multi Router Traffic Grapher). MRTG can graph the activity of many network devices. Different types of Scaffolding used for various types of construction.The 8 types of scaffoldings are trestle, steel, patented, suspended, cantilever, single, double, kwikstage scaffolding etc.To understand these Scaffoldings completely lets first learn its definition and then the uses of various Type of Scaffoldings, and their uses.In this blog you’ll find the most important scaffolding types with their images and explanation.

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