As well as also for Metal & Stone Cutting - Free Activators

December 31, 2021 / Rating: 4.6 / Views: 830

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MCL - Trace Metals Analysis Specimen Collection and Transport - MC1235-233

Specimens may also be poured into a Mayo metal-free vial T173 for transport. Kidney Stones See Kidney Stone Packaging Instructions in Special Instructions. 1. Clean any blood or foreign material from the stone with water. 2. Dry stone at room temperature for 24 hours on a tissue or towel. 3.

As well as also for Metal & Stone Cutting  - Free Activators
A hammer is a tool, most often a hand tool, consisting of a weighted "head" fixed to a long handle that is swung to deliver an impact to a small area of an object. This can be, for example, to drive nails into wood, to shape metal (as with a forge), or to crush rock. Hammers are used for a wide range of driving, shaping, breaking and non-destructive striking applications. Traditional disciplines include carpentry, blacksmithing, warfare, and percussive musicianship (as with a gong). Hammering is use of a hammer in its strike capacity, as opposed to prying with an secondary claw or grappling with a secondary hook. Carpentry and blacksmithing hammers are generally wielded from a stationary stance against a stationary target as gripped and propelled with one arm, in a lengthy downward planar arc—downward to add kinetic energy to the impact—pivoting mainly around the shoulder and elbow, with a small but brisk wrist rotation shortly before impact; for extreme impact, concurrent motions of the torso and knee can lower the shoulder joint during the swing to further increase the length of the swing arc (but this is tiring). War hammers are often wielded in non-vertical planes of motion, with a far greater share of energy input provided from the legs and hips, which can also include a lunging motion, especially against moving targets. Small mallets can be swung from the wrists in a smaller motion permitting a much higher cadence of repeated strikes. Use of hammers and heavy mallets for demolition must adapt the hammer stroke to the location and orientation of the target, which can necessitate a clubbing or golfing motion with a two-handed grip. The modern hammer head is typically made of steel which has been heat treated for hardness, and the handle (also known as a haft or helve) is typically made of wood or plastic. Ubiquitous in framing, the claw hammer has a "claw" to pull nails out of wood, and is commonly found in an inventory of household tools in North America. Other types of hammer vary in shape, size, and structure, depending on their purposes. Hammers used in many trades include sledgehammers, mallets, and ball-peen hammers. Although most hammers are hand tools, powered hammers, such as steam hammers and trip hammers, are used to deliver forces beyond the capacity of the human arm. There are over 40 different types of hammers that have many different types of uses. For hand hammers, the grip of the shaft is an important consideration. Many forms of hammering by hand are heavy work, and perspiration can lead to slippage from the hand, turning a hammer into a dangerous or destructive uncontrolled projectile. Steel is highly elastic and transmits shock and vibration; steel is also a good conductor of heat, making it unsuitable for contact with bare skin in frigid conditions. Modern hammers with steel shafts are almost invariably clad with a synthetic polymer to improve grip, dampen vibration, and to provide thermal insulation. A suitably contoured handle is also an important aid in providing a secure grip during heavy use. Traditional wooden handles were reasonably good in all regards, but lack strength and durability compared to steel, and there are safety issues with wooden handles if the head becomes loose on the shaft. The high elasticity of the steel head is important in energy transfer, especially when used in conjunction with an equally elastic anvil. In terms of human physiology, many uses of the hammer involve coordinated ballistic movements under intense muscular forces which must be planned in advance at the neuromuscular level, as they occur too rapidly for conscious adjustment in flight. For this reason, accurate striking at speed requires more practice than a tapping movement to the same target area. It has been suggested that the cognitive demands for pre-planning, sequencing and accurate timing associated with the related ballistic movements of throwing, clubbing, and hammering precipitated aspects of brain evolution in early hominids. The use of simple hammers dates to around 3.3 million years ago according to the 2012 find made by Sonia Harmand and Jason Lewis of Stony Brook University, who while excavating a site near Kenya's Lake Turkana discovered a very large deposit of various shaped stones including those used to strike wood, bone, or other stones to break them apart and shape them. Stones attached to sticks with strips of leather or animal sinew were being used as hammers with handles by about 30,000 BCE during the middle of the Paleolithic Stone Age. A traditional hand-held hammer consists of a separate head and a handle, which can be fastened together by means of a special wedge made for the purpose, or by glue, or both. The addition of a handle gave the user better control and less accidents. This two-piece design is often used to combine a dense metallic striking head with a non-metallic mechanical-shock-absorbing handle (to reduce user fatigue from repeated strikes). If wood is used for the handle, it is often hickory or ash, which are tough and long-lasting materials that can dissipate shock waves from the hammer head. Rigid fiberglass resin may be used for the handle; this material does not absorb water or decay but does not dissipate shock as well as wood. A loose hammer head is considered hazardous due to the risk of the head becoming detached from the handle while being swung becoming a dangerous uncontrolled projectile. Wooden handles can often be replaced when worn or damaged; specialized kits are available covering a range of handle sizes and designs, plus special wedges and spacers for secure attachment. Some hammers are one-piece designs made mostly of a single material. A one-piece metallic hammer may optionally have its handle coated or wrapped in a resilient material such as rubber for improved grip and to reduce user fatigue. The hammer head may be surfaced with a variety of materials including brass, bronze, wood, plastic, rubber, or leather. Some hammers have interchangeable striking surfaces, which can be selected as needed or replaced when worn out. Cross-peen hammer A large hammer-like tool is a maul (sometimes called a "beetle"), a wood- or rubber-headed hammer is a mallet, and a hammer-like tool with a cutting blade is usually called a hatchet. The parts of a hammer are the face, head (includes the bell and neck, which are not labeled), eye (where the handle fits into), peen (also spelled pein and pane). The essential part of a hammer is the head, a compact solid mass that is able to deliver a blow to the intended target without itself deforming. The side of a hammer is the cheek and some hammers have straps that extend down the handle for strength. The impacting surface of the tool is usually flat or slightly rounded; the opposite end of the impacting mass may have a ball shape, as in the ball-peen hammer. Some upholstery hammers have a magnetized face, to pick up tacks. In the hatchet, the flat hammer head may be secondary to the cutting edge of the tool. The impact between steel hammer heads and the objects being hit can create sparks, which may ignite flammable or explosive gases. These are a hazard in some industries such as underground coal mining (due to the presence of methane gas), or in other hazardous environments such as petroleum refineries and chemical plants. In these environments, a variety of non-sparking metal tools are used, primarily made of aluminium or beryllium copper. In recent years, the handles have been made of durable plastic or rubber, though wood is still widely used because of its shock-absorbing qualities and repairability. A hammer is a simple force amplifier that works by converting mechanical work into kinetic energy and back. In the swing that precedes each blow, the hammer head stores a certain amount of kinetic energy—equal to the length D of the swing times the force f produced by the muscles of the arm and by gravity. When the hammer strikes, the head is stopped by an opposite force coming from the target, equal and opposite to the force applied by the head to the target. If the target is a hard and heavy object, or if it is resting on some sort of anvil, the head can travel only a very short distance d before stopping. Since the stopping force F times that distance must be equal to the head's kinetic energy, it follows that F is much greater than the original driving force f—roughly, by a factor D/d. In this way, great strength is not needed to produce a force strong enough to bend steel, or crack the hardest stone. The amount of energy delivered to the target by the hammer-blow is equivalent to one half the mass of the head times the square of the head's speed at the time of impact . While the energy delivered to the target increases linearly with mass, it increases quadratically with the speed (see the effect of the handle, below). High tech titanium heads are lighter and allow for longer handles, thus increasing velocity and delivering the same energy with less arm fatigue than that of a heavier steel head hammer. A titanium head has about 3% recoil energy and can result in greater efficiency and less fatigue when compared to a steel head with up to 30% recoil. Dead blow hammers use special rubber or steel shot to absorb recoil energy, rather than bouncing the hammer head after impact. It keeps the user's hands away from the point of impact. It provides a broad area that is better-suited for gripping by the hand. Most importantly, it allows the user to maximize the speed of the head on each blow. The primary constraint on additional handle length is the lack of space to swing the hammer. This is why sledgehammers, largely used in open spaces, can have handles that are much longer than a standard carpenter's hammer. The second most important constraint is more subtle. Even without considering the effects of fatigue, the longer the handle, the harder it is to guide the head of the hammer to its target at full speed. Most designs are a compromise between practicality and energy efficiency. With too long a handle, the hammer is inefficient because it delivers force to the wrong place, off-target. With too short a handle, the hammer is inefficient because it doesn't deliver enough force, requiring more blows to complete a given task. Modifications have also been made with respect to the effect of the hammer on the user. Handles made of shock-absorbing materials or varying angles attempt to make it easier for the user to continue to wield this age-old device, even as nail guns and other powered drivers encroach on its traditional field of use. As hammers must be used in many circumstances, where the position of the person using them cannot be taken for granted, trade-offs are made for the sake of practicality. In areas where one has plenty of room, a long handle with a heavy head (like a sledgehammer) can deliver the maximum amount of energy to the target. It is not practical to use such a large hammer for all tasks, however, and thus the overall design has been modified repeatedly to achieve the optimum utility in a wide variety of situations. If hammering downwards, gravity increases the acceleration during the hammer stroke and increases the energy delivered with each blow. If hammering upwards, gravity reduces the acceleration during the hammer stroke and therefore reduces the energy delivered with each blow. Some hammering methods, such as traditional mechanical pile drivers, rely entirely on gravity for acceleration on the down stroke. A hammer may cause significant injury if it strikes the body. Both manual and powered hammers can cause peripheral neuropathy or a variety of other ailments when used improperly. Awkward handles can cause repetitive stress injury (RSI) to hand and arm joints, and uncontrolled shock waves from repeated impacts can injure nerves and the skeleton. Additionally, striking metal objects with a hammer may produce small metallic projectiles which can become lodged in the eye. It is therefore recommended to wear safety glasses. The hammer, being one of the most used tools by man, has been used very much in symbols such as flags and heraldry. In the Middle Ages, it was used often in blacksmith guild logos, as well as in many family symbols. The hammer and pick are used as a symbol of mining. In mythology, the gods Thor (Norse) and Sucellus (Celtic and Gallo-Roman), and the hero Hercules (Greek), all had hammers that appear in their lore and carried different meanings. Thor, the god of thunder and lightning, wields a hammer named Mjölnir. Many artifacts of decorative hammers have been found, leading modern practitioners of this religion to often wear reproductions as a sign of their faith. In American folklore, the hammer of John Henry represents the strength and endurance of a man. A political party in Singapore, Workers' Party of Singapore, based their logo on a hammer to symbolize the party's civic nationalism and social democracy ideology. A variant, well-known symbol with a hammer in it is the Hammer and Sickle, which was the symbol of the former Soviet Union and is strongly linked to communism and early socialism. The hammer in this symbol represents the industrial working class (and the sickle represents the agricultural working class). The hammer is used in some coats of arms in former socialist countries like East Germany. Similarly, the Hammer and Sword symbolizes Strasserism, a strand of National Socialism seeking to appeal to the working class. Another variant of the symbol was used for the North Korean party, Workers' Party of Korea, incorporated with an ink brush on the middle, which symbolizes both Juche and Songun ideologies. In Pink Floyd – The Wall, two hammers crossed are used as a symbol for the fascist takeover of the concert during "In the Flesh". This also has the meaning of the hammer beating down any "nails" that stick out. The gavel, a small wooden mallet, is used to symbolize a mandate to preside over a meeting or judicial proceeding, and a graphic image of one is used as a symbol of legislative or judicial decision-making authority. Judah Maccabee was nicknamed "The Hammer", possibly in recognition of his ferocity in battle. The name "Maccabee" may derive from the Aramaic maqqaba. (see Judah Maccabee § Origin of Name "The Hammer".) The hammer in the song "If I Had a Hammer" represents a relentless message of justice broadcast across the land. The song became a symbol of the civil rights movement.Whether you're an expert or whether you've just gotten yourself your first hammer, you know that tools are necessary if you want to get any kind of work done. Whether it's just to put a nail in a wall or if you want to level things, you'll need to use the tools that were created for each particular job. But to know how to use an item means that you should be able to identify it, and to at least know one of its uses. We want to see if you can not only identify some tools for us, but also if you know what they're used for. Are chainsaws only meant to be used by horror-movie characters? And should chisels only be used by sculptors to create works of art? We're here to find out just many questions you can answer, and if you'll even get them right. By the end of the quiz, we'll be able to tell you whether you should stick to hiring a professional whenever you have household issues or whether you can do it better. A hammer is a hand-held tool used to drive nails into wood, crush rocks or shape metal (with a forge). It consists of a long wooden or plastic handle with a head made of steel. One end of the head is used for hammering, while the other end, called the claw, is used to remove nails. A chisel is a wooden or metal tool with a handle and sharp cutting edge. It is used for cutting or carving hard materials such as wood, metal or stone by hand, with a mallet or hammer or attached to a hydraulic ram (mechanical power). A screwdriver, also known as a turnscrew, is a manual or powered tool used for inserting and removing screws. It consists of a wooden, metal or plastic handle and a steel shaft which ends in a tip, the latter of which is designed to fit the driving surfaces on the corresponding screw head. The pliers are a hand tool used to bend or compress a wide variety of materials or to handle objects too small to be done with the fingers. It consists of a pair of metal handles fitted with grips of other materials, the pivot and the head section with gripping jaws or cutting edges. Clamps are fastening devices used to secure or hold objects tightly together to prevent separation or movement. There are a variety of clamps available for different purposes, including medical, permanent and temporary. A drill is a tool used to make holes in a variety of materials or to drive in screws. It is fitted with a driving tool or cutting tool attachment, usually a driver or drill bit. Types of drills include hand drills, pistol-grip (corded) drill, cordless drill, hammer drill, rotary hammer and mill drill. A tape measure, also called a measuring tape, is a is a flexible ruler used to measure length and distance. It consists of a ribbon made of cloth, plastic, metal strip or fiberglass and is designed to measure around curves and corners. A circular saw is a power saw, which may be hand-held or mounted on a machine, and is used to cut various materials including wood, plastic, metal and masonry. Invented near the end of the 18th century, the circular saw may be powered using electricity, gasoline or a hydraulic motor. A box cutter is a small utility knife which consists of a retractable blade fitted inside a plastic case. It is used for cutting open boxes as well as cutting the tape sealing a package without damaging the contents. Shears are large scissors which consist of a pair of metal blades and are typically designed with composite thermoplastic or rubber handles. There are types of shears which may be used to cut grass, branches and stems, as well as metals and animal fur. They can also be used in the kitchen for food preparation. A jointer, also called a try plane or trying plane, is a type of hand plane used to straighten the edges of boards or to flatten the face of a board. It rides over the undulations of an uneven surface by skimming off the peaks and gradually creates a flat surface. A shovel is a tool used to dig, lift or move large amounts of materials such as soil, gravel, ore, sand, snow or coal. It consists of a broad blade made of sheet steel or hard plastic, attached to a wooden or fiber-plastic handle, the length of which varies according to the type of shovel. A bolt cutter, also known as a bolt cropper, is a tool designed for cutting bolts, chains, wire mesh and padlocks. It has a pair of long handles and short blades of which there are many types, including angle cut, shear cut, center and clipper cut blades. A chainsaw is a type of portable mechanical saw that can be used in activities such as tree felling, bucking, pruning, limbing, harvesting of firewood and cutting firebreaks in wildland fire suppression. It contains a set of teeth fitted to a rotating chain which runs along a guide bar. A jackhammer, also known as a demolition hammer or pneumatic drill, is an electromechanical or pneumatic tool typically used to break up pavement, rock and concrete. This tool combines a hammer directly with a chisel and operates by driving an internal hammer up and down. An angle grinder, also called a disc grinder or side grinder, is a power tool used for grinding or polishing. It may be powered by a petrol engine, electric motor or compressed air and is standard equipment in metal-fabrication shops and on construction sites. The backsaw is any hand saw with a stiffening rib opposite to the cutting edge which allows better control and more precise work than other types of saws. Types of backsaws include the miters saw, tenon saw, sash saw, dovetail saw, Gent's saw, razor saw and dōzuki (Japanese backsaw). The pneumatic torque wrench, not to be confused with an impact wrench, is air-motor-driven planetary gearbox with a very high reduction ratio. It is used to precisely apply a specific torque to a fastener such as a bolt or a nut. A router is a tool used to root (hollow out) part of a relatively hard material such as wood or plastic. It is a specialized kind of hand plane which may be hand-held (router plane) or a power tool with an electric motor or mounted upside down on a roter table bench. A nail gun or nailer is a type of power tool used to drive nails into wood or other materials. This tool may be powered by electromagnetism, compressed air, highly flammable gases such as propane or butane or a small explosive charges, as in the case of powder-actuated tools. A sander is a power tool that is usually used to smooth surfaces with sandpaper. Sanders used in woodwork are powered electrically, while those used in auto-body repair work use compressed air. Types of woodworking sanders include the disc sander, random orbital sander and belt sander. A lathe is a tool which rotates a workpiece around an axis of rotation. It is used for a variety of operations such as drilling, cutting, sanding, knurling, deformation, facing and turning. It is also used in metalworking, woodturning, metal spinning, thermal spraying and glass-working. A diamond tool is a type of cutting tool with grains of diamond attached to the functional part of the tool, and it is used to cut carbide alloy, non-ferrous metals such as aluminum and copper and hard or abrasive non-metallic materials such as stone, concrete, glass and ceramic. The Allen key, also known as Allen wrench or hex key, is a tool used to drive screws and bolts with hexagonal-shaped sockets in their heads. It is a small and light tool with an L-shape and is commonly designed to be used on both sides. An ax is a type of wedge or dual-inclined plane composed of a wooden handle attached to a steelhead with a single or double-bit. It is used to cut, split or shape wood, to harvest timber or as a weapon. Types of axes include the felling ax, splitting ax, carpenter's ax and hatchet. A mallet is a kind of hammer with a wooden handle and a large head made of rubber, wood, steel, copper, brass or lead. Mallets may be used in carpentry (wooden), used on machinery to avoid sparks (copper, brass, leaden) or to tenderize or flatten meat (meat mallet). A rake is a horticultural tool used to collect leaves, grass and hay, to loosen the soil or for light weeding and leveling. It is composed of a wide, toothed bar fixed to a long handle. Rakes may be plastic, steel or bamboo with wooden or metal handles. A cultivator is any of several types of farm equipment used to stir and pulverize the soil, either before planting or after the crops have started growing (to kill weeds). Types of cultivators include the chisel plow, rotary tiller, row crop cultivator, rotavator, mini tiller and two-wheel tractor. A ladder is usually a vertical set of rungs or steps which are made from metal, wood, fiberglass or tough plastic. There are two main types: rigid ladders, which include extension ladders, step ladders and the attic ladder, and flexible ladders such as rope ladders or Jacob's ladders. A file is a tool commonly used in woodworking and metalworking to remove fine amounts of materials from a workpiece. It is composed of a case of hardened steel bar with abrasive surfaces such as silicon carbide or natural or synthetic diamonds. A sledgehammer is a large tool with a flat metal head and a long handle, and it can distribute force over a wide area. It is commonly used in demolition work to break drywall and masonry wall, to drive in spikes for rails or to cut stone or metal with a steel chisel (mini-sledge). The level, also called spirit level or bubble level, is an instrument used to indicate whether a surface is vertical (plumb) or horizontal (level). Types of levels include pot level, line level, mason's level, electric level, bull's eye level, carpenter's level and surveyor's leveling instrument. A nail set is a small metal tool which resembles an ice pack and is used to drive finish nails at or below the surface of the wood. Most nail-set kits contain at least three nail sets with various-sized tips and a center punch used to mark the center of a point. A punch is a metal rod that has a sharp tip at one end and a blunt end on the other used to drive objects such as nails, usually by striking with a hammer. Types of punches include the center punch, used to mark the center of a point, and the prick punch used for marking. A bandsaw is a type of saw used to cut a variety of materials such as wood, metal and plastic, and it is commonly used in woodworking, metalworking and lumbering. It consists of a long, sharp blade with a continuous band of toothed metal stretched between two or more wheels. A vise is a mechanical piece of equipment used to secure an object to allow work to be performed on it. It consists of two parallel jaws, one fixed, the other movable, threaded in and out by a lever and screw. Types of vises include woodworking, engineer's, machine, vacuum, clamp, pipe and combination vises. A block plane is a small tool used in woodworking; it differs from other planes in that the blade is bedded at a lower angle with the bevel up. It is designed to cut end grains, remove glue lines and clean up components by removing thin shavings of wood. A sliding T bevel, also called a false square or bevel gauge, is an adjustable gauge used to set and transfer angles. This tool consists of a metal or wooden handle connected to a metal blade with a wing nut or thumbscrew. A hand saw or panel saw is a type of saw used in woodworking and carpentry to cut or chop pieces of wood into different shapes. Hand saws, which come in a variety of sizes, consist of short, wooden handles and metal blades with cross-cut or rip-saw teeth. Lucky for you, How Stuff Works Play is here to help. A wrench, also called a spanner, is a tool used to provide grip in applying torque to turn objects (such as bolts and nuts) or to keep them from turning. Our award-winning website offers reliable, easy-to-understand explanations about how the world works. Types of wrenches include the open-end wrench, combination wrench, pipe wrench, torque wrench and plumber wrench. From fun quizzes that bring joy to your day, to compelling photography and fascinating lists, How Stuff Works Play offers something for everyone. We send trivia questions and personality tests every week to your inbox. Sometimes we explain how stuff works, other times, we ask you, but we’re always exploring in the name of fun! By clicking "Sign Up" you are agreeing to our privacy policy and confirming that you are 13 years old or over.Did ancient civilizations possess knowledge that has since been lost to science? Were amazing technologies available to the ancient Egyptians that enabled them to construct the pyramids—technologies that have somehow been forgotten? The ruins of several ancient civilizations—from Stonehenge to the pyramids—show that they used massive stones to construct their monuments. Why use stone pieces of such enormous size and weight when the same structures could have been constructed with more easily managed smaller blocks—much like we use bricks and cinder blocks today? Could part of the answer be that these ancients had a method of lifting and moving these massive stones—some weighing several tons—that made the task as easy and manageable as lifting a two-pound brick? The ancients, some researchers suggest, may have mastered the art of levitation, through sonics or some other obscure method, that allowed them to defy gravity and manipulate massive objects with ease. How the great pyramids of Egypt were built has been the subject of debate for millennia. The fact is, no one really knows for certain exactly how they were constructed. The current estimates of mainstream science contend that it took a workforce of 4,000 to 5,000 men 20 years to build the Great Pyramid using ropes, pulleys, ramps, ingenuity and brute force. But there is an intriguing passage in a history text by the 10th-century Arab historian, Abul Hasan Ali Al-Masudi, known as the Herodotus of the Arabs. Al-Masudi had traveled much of the known world in his day before settling in Egypt, and he had written a 30-volume history of the world. He too was struck by the magnificence of the Egyptian pyramids and wrote about how their great stone blocks were transported. First, he said, a "magic papyrus" (paper) was placed under the stone to be moved. Then the stone was struck with a metal rod that caused the stone to levitate and move along a path paved with stones and fenced on either side by metal poles. The stone would travel along the path, wrote Al-Masudi, for a distance of about 50 meters and then settle to the ground. The process would then be repeated until the builders had the stone where they wanted it. Considering that the pyramids were already thousands of years old when Al-Masudi wrote this explanation, we have to wonder where he got his information. Was it part of an oral history that was passed down from generation to generation in Egypt? The unusual details of the story raise that possibility. Or was this just a fanciful story concocted by a talented writer who—like many who marvel at the pyramids today—concluded that there must have been some extraordinary magical forces employed to build such a magnificent structure? If we take the story at face value, what kind of levitation forces were involved? Did the striking of the rock create vibrations that resulted in sonic levitation? Or did the layout of stones and rods create a magnetic levitation? If so, the science accounting for either scenario is unknown to us today. The Egyptian pyramids are not the only ancient structures constructed of huge blocks of stone. Great temples and monuments around the world contain stone components of incredible size, yet little is known about their means of construction. What was the secret these diverse and ancient cultures possessed to manipulate these great stone blocks? A massive supply of slave labor straining human muscle and ingenuity to their limits? It's remarkable that these cultures leave no record of how these structures were constructed. However, "in almost every culture where megaliths exist," according to 432: Cosmic Key, "a legend also exists that the huge stones were moved by acoustic means—either by the chanted spells of magicians, by song, by striking with a magic wand or rod (to produce acoustic resonance), or by trumpets, gongs, lyres, cymbals or whistles." Beginning in 1920, Edward Leedskalnin, a 5-ft. A Latvian immigrant began to build a remarkable structure in Homestead, Florida. Over a 20-year period, Leedskalnin single-handedly builds a home he originally called "Rock Gate Park," but has since been named Coral Castle. Working in secret—often at night—Leedskalnin was somehow able to quarry, fashion, transport and constructed the impressive edifices and sculptures of his unique home from large blocks of heavy coral rock. No one ever witnessed to how Leedskalnin was able to move and lift such enormous objects, although it is claimed that some spying teenagers saw him "float coral blocks through the air like hydrogen balloons." Leedskalnin was highly secretive about his methods, saying only at one point, "I have discovered the secrets of the pyramids. They supply Beryls, aquamarines, tourmalines and quartz, available in various forms and cuts. Each stone purchase comes with a certificate that outlines the trade of the stone and the conditions under which it was processed which must follow the IBAMA regulations which is the Brazilian environmental authority. Capricorn Gems Capricorn Gems is a supplier of responsibly sourced gemstones from Central Queensland, Australia. Capricorn Gems currently offers four gemstone types, all traceable to small scale mining operations in Central Queensland, Australia. Gemstones currently supplied by Capricorn Gems are Boulder Opal, Sapphires, Zircon and Chrysoprase. Additionally, ethically sourced gemstones to add to the existing offering are currently being examined. Capricorn Gems source from approximately a dozen different mines. Each mining operation is typically a small family business or a partnership arrangement. The type of mining practiced is not artisanal as most mining operations use modern excavation and processing methods. Although the size of the mining operations are not large enough to constitute a large scale or corporate mining operation. Information on the geography of the mining areas in Central Queensland, can be found on this site. The following information tells more about the mining regulations and laws relation to gemstone extraction in Queensland. Low level extraction of gems or “fossicking” using hand tools can be carried out under the Queensland Fossicking Act 1994, but this only permits a low level of disturbance. Most opal and gemstone activities classed as “mining” would be carried out under claims and mining leases under the Queensland Mineral Resources Act and as such the miner is bound by all the relevant provisions of the Mineral Resources Act and the Environmental Protection Act for exploration and mining activities. Most opal, sapphire, and gemstone extraction would involve environmentally relevant activities and require an environmental authority. In addition, exploration and mining activities are defined as “a mine” for the purposes of the Commonwealth Native Title Act. Native Title agreements are required for exploration and mining on lands where native title may still exist (non-exclusive lands). Furthermore, all miners and explorers have a duty of care to indigenous cultural heritage through the Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Act. This may require the preparation of a Cultural Heritage Plan as part of the Mining approval process. All mining operations must also comply with relevant Workplace Health and Safety Laws. Capricorn Gems Stone Cutting Practices: The location of Capricorn Gems’ stone cutting varies depending on the stone type. Much of their Opal and Chrysoprase is cut by their own team in Queensland whereas faceted gemstones stones are mostly cut in Thailand under the supervision of Capricorn Gems directors. The cutting operator in Thailand has partnered with Capricorn Gems for many years. See below for images of various Capricorn Gems mine visits. Opal Mining Photos Sapphire Mining Photos Opalton Mining Trip, April 2016 Broken River Mining Trip, May 2016 For further questions about sourcing methods, current stone varieties and to purchase stones; email Capricorn Gems co-owner, Ian Bone. supplier that has been developing direct relationships with miners since 1976. They offer 150 varieties of traceable gemstones with a full mine to market tracking system which allows for documented traceability throughout the supply chain. For assurance of where a Colombia Gemhouse stone comes from and the conditions under which it was mined and cut, traceability documents are available to customers when purchasing. Colombia Gemhouse measures the mining and cutting practices of their stones against their Fair Trade Protocols. These protocols include standards for environmental protection, fair labour practices, promotion of cultural diversity, community development and public education. Colombia Gemhouse have their own fully audited cutting and polishing house in China, where workers are paid a fair wage plus additional benefits. Colombia Gemhouse stones are given a number rating which corresponds to a specific fair trade standard level, outlined in their Fair Trade Protocols. This provides critical information on their supply chain and helps encourage transparent responsible sourcing in the industry. In association with Colombia Gemhouse, Fair Trade Gemstones bring Colombia Gemhouse stones to the UK market. Contact [email protected] information on purchasing Colombia Gemhouse products in the UK. Find out more Fair Trade Minerals & Gems A German non-profit association that promotes fair trade in mineral and gem trade from Latin America, Africa and Australia. Gemstones Brazil Gemstones Brazil is an international wholesaler of from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Many of their stones come from their family owned mines, which are operated with as minimal environmental disruption as possible and with the health and safety of miners a top priority. Gemstones Brazil also source a variety of gemstones from other mining cooperatives in Minas Gerais that they have longstanding relationships with. Gemstones Brazil are transparent about their stone sourcing and about which stones are fully traceable. As a supplier that is passionate about transparency and Gemstones Brazil: Traceable Stone Origins Rio Pardo mine: Amethyst, Citrine, Tourmaline, Ametrine, Chrystal Quartz, Rose Quartz, Tourmaline watermelon, Green Amethyst, Lemon Quartz, Rutile, Lavender Quartz, Smokey Q Mining Cooperative: Blue Topaz, Emerald, Tourmaline, Garnet, Morganite, Opal, Drusy, Iolite, Chalcedony, Peridot, Ruby, Tourmaline watermelon, moonstone, Lapis Lazuli, Rutile, Turquoise Ouro Preto Cooperative: Imperial Topaz Gemstones Brazil mine: Aquamarine, Yellow Beryl where their stones come from. Working to increase supply chain transparency in the gemstone trade, information about where their stones are cut is also available upon request. Contact Gemstones Brazil for more information about their . Jeweltree Foundation The Jeweltree foundation is an independent, third-party certifier of supply chain transparency, social responsibility, and ecological sustainability in support of small scale mining initiatives in developing countries. Jeweltree supports small scale miners of both precious metals and stones by certifying and promoting their products, assisting them in getting the highest possible market price and where possible, additional premiums. They work to increase supply chain transparency by promoting best practice standards within the industry and by partnering with initiatives to increase responsibility in the industry. Marc’Harit Marc’Harit are a company based in Copenhagen that supplies and traceable gemstones internationally. They work directly with a cutting factory and many of their stones are traceable to the mine, with origin information available to the customer for certain stones. Though traceability and proof of compliance to standards is more difficult with gemstones, Marc’Harit are transparent about their sources and are open to answer questions from customers. Muzo Emeralds from Colombia Muzo are a supplier of emeralds. Mineria Texas Colombia (MTC) took full control of the Muzo mine in Boyacá Colombia in 2014. Muzo pay their miners a fixed salary and provide access to health care and a union for miners. They have also modernised the mine’s technology and contribute to the economic and social development of the mining community by investing in community projects, working with vulnerable peoples, cleaning up the environment, and establishing a specialist centre in Bogotá for the cutting and polishing of the top 10-15 per cent of the emeralds to emerge from the mine. These gems are branded Muzo Emerald, with each gemstone tracked and documented from its origin to the market. Natures Geometry Natures Geometry is a supplier of . They have been demonstrating that the mining of Brazilian Golden Rutile Quartz can not only deliver stunning gemstones, it can also provide safe employment, an increased agricultural yield, reforestation, and support associated businesses to local peoples. Nineteen48 Nineteen48 is a supplier of responsibly sourced and fully traceable gemstones, based in the UK. They offer a wide variety of stones from four main artisanal mining sources, including their own mines in Sri Lanka and from their small network of approved suppliers. Supply Chain Nineteen48’s gemstones from Sri Lanka come from Nineteen48’s own operated mines, and from approximately six other small-scale mining sites. Miners are paid a guaranteed wage and are usually stake holders in the mine as well. All of their stones from Sri Lanka are cut by either a freelance cutter or through a stone cutting workshop in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Wet cutting is the tendency here, which reduces the risk of operators breathing in dust particles. Nineteen48 visit their cutting operators in Sri Lanka to check conditions of practice and try wherever possible to enforce safe handling protocols. Outside of Sri Lanka, they also source stones from Malawi, Tanzania and Australia through their network of suppliers. Although Nineteen48 cannot verify firsthand the traceability of these stones, the suppliers they work with provide information on the origins, mining and cutting conditions of their stones, and are known in the industry as responsible sources with strict environmental and working standards. Nineteen48 are passionate about responsible sourcing, transparency and education in the gemstone industry. They are happy to share information with customers about their mines and suppliers as well as images from their visits that illustrate the supply chain. Although third party accreditation is not yet available for gemstones, visual records of the conditions under which stones are mined and cut is an important step in the right direction. Nineteen48 also provide disclosure documents of authenticity with each stone which includes stone origins and characteristics. Outreach Nineteen48 support sustainable development projects in Malawi and Tanzania and local charities Sri Lanka. Additionally, as part of their education within the trade, Nineteen48 offer workshops and lectures about what responsible sourcing means and issues in the gemstone trade. Stuart Pool, co-owner, is a member of the Fair Luxury team and the National Association of Jewellers Better Business Group and through these channels works to increase awareness within the industry and help jewellers understand what responsible sourcing means. Ruby Fair Rubyfair provides fully traceable and responsibly mined rubies, sapphires and spinels from a community-run mining project in the Mahenge region of Tanzania. The mine has an integrated approach to community relations, environmental management, water management, and fair prices. They have a ‘leave no trace’ philosophy and their environmental standards include minimising impact and improving the mining area wherever possible. In 2017, the Rubyfair brand was taken over by Nineteen48, who now sell the stock of gemstones from the Mahenge mine. A percentage of the proceeds from the Rubyfair gemstones continues to benefit the community there.Steel is essential to every aspect of modern life, yet its future finds itself centre stage in the climate change debate. Can advances in green steel technologies, fuelled by innovative investments from miners and steel producers, become an age-defining development in the energy transition? Steel production is among the world's most polluting industries, accounting for as much as 9 per cent of direct emissions from fossil fuels, more than all the world's cars and planes combined. The traditional method of making steel, where coking coal is combined with iron ore, is in direct tension with the Paris Accord and global efforts to curb temperature rises. Yet steel is also essential to every aspect of modern life. It's a crucial component for technologies of the future that will help tackle climate change, from electric vehicles to wind turbines, as well as being the bedrock of all existing infrastructure and manufacturing processes. The future of steel therefore finds itself centre stage in the climate change debate, and this has also had implications for other substantial industries. The world's largest cement makers have taken up the challenge of cutting emissions from cement production, such as burning tires instead of coal to generate the energy needed to fuel factories. Given that cement is a partially substitutable material for steel, there is effectively a race emerging between these two industries to establish who can initiate more effective decarbonisation efforts faster—something that should ultimately benefit the planet. Another heavily impacted industry is iron ore, one of the main profit drivers for the world's biggest miners. However, the majors are coming under increasing pressure from investors to both account for and tackle the emissions created when their customers make steel, so-called Scope 3 emissions. While coal was a relatively small part of Rio Tinto's overall portfolio, the world's second-biggest miner made the first move in 2018 when it sold its last coal operations. BHP Group, the biggest miner, has unveiled plans to sell off its thermal coal mines by the end of 2022. Anglo American and Vale are seeking to withdraw from the coal industry and are taking steps to divest their remaining coal assets. Even Glencore, one of the biggest producers and champions of coal, has implemented a cap on its coal production. These moves by the majors have essentially resulted in the alignment of their interests towards low or zero-carbon steel production. The majority of steel is currently manufactured in blast furnaces. Iron ore and coke, made from coking coal, sinter and limestone, is fed into the top of the furnace. Hot air—approximately 1,000°C—is injected at the bottom of the furnace. As the coke burns, temperatures higher than 2,000°C are reached and this heat creates molten iron. This process, and the burning of coal, makes it one of the leading producers of CO2 on the planet. According to the World Steel Association, in the last three decades the steel industry has reduced its energy consumption per ton of steel by about 50 per cent. Yet, many in the industry now agree that most of the easy gains have already been achieved and that there is only marginal room to achieve further progress with existing technologies. This means that for the industry to fall into line with a low-carbon economy, new technologies are required to shift current production methods towards new ways of making steel. The industry's response to the challenges posed by traditional methods is green steel—metal produced without releasing carbon into the environment. There are various technologies being rolled out in pilots around the world, but the focus is on replacing coking coal in the process. So far, efforts are centred around either using hydrogen or electricity in its place. Other lower- carbon initiatives include using `blue' hydrogen, which relates to hydrogen production that involves carbon capture and usage or the storage of emitted carbon dioxide, and recycling more scrap. Major players in the industry have formalised their commitment to decarbonisation in the form of the Net-Zero Steel Initiative, which is finalising an industry-backed roadmap to net-zero emissions by 2050, set for release this summer. The scale of the challenge and the importance of solving it means that the governments and regulation ought to play a crucial role in finding a solution. COP26—the UN Climate Change Conference—takes place in Glasgow this November, bringing together heads of state, climate experts and campaigners to agree upon coordinated action to tackle climate change. Emissions from steel manufacturing will be on the agenda, and it will be an opportunity to achieve international agreement on coping with the emissions from the continuing use of metallurgical coal, and showcasing the need for significant state support to successfully roll out the development of green steel. Major nations have not been idle on this topic, with a range of approaches taken. In the UK, for example, a £250 million Clean Steel Fund was set up in 2019—a long-term signal of support to the steel sector and its decarbonisation efforts. In December 2020, the UK government published the responses it received from a range of stakeholders in response to the plan, including UK Steel, Greensteel Council, Liberty Steel and Tata Steel, as well as several academics. The main issues raised fell into three categories: energy prices and other barriers, timing of the Fund, and decarbonisation technology options. The government is currently developing the detailed design of the Fund, incorporating this feedback and assessing the opportunities to be gained in overcoming these. On the continent, launched in December 2019, the European Union's Green Deal has set a goal of becoming climate neutral by 2050. A May 2021 report from the Energy and Climate Intelligence unit said 23 hydrogen steel projects are either planned or under way across Europe, including plans to produce hundreds of thousands of tonnes of green steel by as early as next year. The region's steel industry has said it aims to reduce its emissions by 30 per cent by 2030 and by as much as 95 per cent by 2050. Industry lobby groups argue that while this is possible on a technical level, significant support will be required. Central to this would be safeguarding the industry from imports that aren't held to the same requirements and the provision of affordable power. The ‘carbon border adjustment mechanism' would impose a CO2 charge on certain goods entering the bloc in order to prevent cheap foreign products, including steel, that have a negative carbon impact and which in turn stymie investment in green tech. China is the world's biggest steelmaker, producing about 50 per cent of global supply, and the industry accounts for about 15 per cent of its carbon emissions. The country has committed to becoming carbon neutral by 2060, but has yet to provide a clear roadmap on how it will achieve this, including with steel. China's Ministry of Information and Technology is readying a five-year plan for all domestic steel makers to lower emissions by switching to electric arc furnaces and recycling more scrap. China's largest steel producer, state-owned Baowu, has committed to achieving carbon neutrality by 2050, and peak emissions in 2023. Russian steelmakers have also embarked on their green journey, with major companies Evraz and Severstal among those to have signed several agreements to implement green steelmaking at the 24th St Petersburg International Economic Forum earlier in June 2021. In Australia, Fortescue Metals Group chairman, Andrew Forrest, has revealed his ambitions to build Australia's first green steel pilot plant this year. Given its abundance of wind and solar, the country is well placed to produce the hydrogen a green steel industry needs, a point emphasised in last year's Grattan Institute report, which argued that a renewables-based steel industry could deliver strong action on global warming while also generating significant employment opportunities. Progress in South America is slower—perhaps due to the political incumbents in key nations, but the opportunity has been noted. Research from the World Resources Institute suggests that shifting to a low-carbon economy could boost Brazil's economic growth substantially while reducing carbon emissions by up to 33 per cent, helping reverse damage to Brazil's environmental reputation, and improving access to international capital markets. In the US, the Biden administration's climate plan has put infrastructure at its heart, which ultimately puts steel centre stage. So far there has been limited detail on the country's plans for steel, but the White House has said implementing green hydrogen to forge the metal is key to meeting its 2030 targets. One significant advantage the US has is its existing dependence on recycled steel. Scrap accounts for about 70 per cent of the raw metal input into American steel production today, a far higher ratio than most major producers. Recycling is significantly less carbon-intensive than making primary steel. One of the current leading technologies being developed is replacing coking coal with hydrogen. When hydrogen is used instead of coke to remove the oxygen from iron ore, the by-product is water rather than carbon dioxide. And when hydrogen is produced using renewable sources, it can be a steady source of green energy. There are multiple companies working on a hydrogen solution. Hybrit, a venture run by steelmaker SSAB, iron ore producer LKAB and energy supplier Vattenfall, is replacing coking coal with fossil-free electricity and hydrogen, and plans to deliver its first fossil-free steel to the market by 2026. Another Swedish venture, backed by the Agnelli and Maersk families, is H2 Green Steel. Using similar technology, the group is aiming to produce five million tonnes of emissions-free steel by the end of the decade. Sweden has found itself in pole position because of its ample supply of green power thanks to its wind turbines; while helpful for the nation, this does pose potential challenges for wider adoption. Molten oxide electrolysis can be deployed at iron ore mine or installed at steelmaking facilities, where it eliminates carbon intensive steps and produces liquid steel ready for ladle metallurgy. MOE technology will enable the production of high quality, green steel at a competitive cost with oxygen as a by-product. European steelmaking rivals, such as Germany's Thyssenkrupp and Arcelor Mittal, are also looking at using hydrogen to replace coking coal. But unlike some of their Nordic peers, they have less access to green power, with Germany especially dependent on coal. The second approach is known as molten oxide electrolysis (MOE). This removes the need for coking ovens and blast furnaces. Instead, iron ore is dissolved in a liquid electrolyte solution at a temperature of about 1,600ºC before an electrical current is passed through the solution, reducing the iron ore into a liquid in an endothermic reaction. Boston Metal is one of the leading proponents of this technology, and its list of backers clearly shows the level of enthusiasm. Both BHP Group and Vale, two of the three biggest iron ore miners, have invested in the company, showing how seriously the biggest miners see the risk of not making green steel. Tadeu Carneiro, the Chairman and CEO of Boston Metal, believes Boston Metal's technology will reshape the steel industry. ‘Because of its intrinsic value and flexibility, MOE can be deployed at iron ore mines, allowing the shipment of a value-added metallic product. It can also be installed at steelmaking facilities where it eliminates carbon-intensive steps and produces liquid steel ready for ladle metallurgy. Another advantage for steelmakers is that the entire range of iron ores can be used successfully with MOE, not just premium grades. MOE technology will enable the production of high- quality green steel at a competitive cost with oxygen as a by-product,‘ says Carneiro. If the world wants to meet its commitments to decarbonise, a solution for steel must be found. The technologies required are in the process of being proven, but there is still a large leap required to make them commercially viable, especially in the absence of cheap, fossil‑free power. Even the developers of the new technologies accept that higher prices for carbon emissions and coking coal will be needed to make hydrogen steel commercially viable. The market for green steel does not yet command a premium, mirroring the experience to date in other metals such as aluminium, where a green product does not command significant premium pricing. The issue of cost must be addressed; one clear example of this is Germany, one of Europe's biggest makers of steel and its most important manufacturing economy. The government has pledged €5 billion to help decarbonise the industry, yet the total cost of achieving this is forecast at €35 billion. The steel industry has struggled to be consistently profitable in the last decade, meaning it's unlikely that existing producers alone will be able to foot the costs associated with the transition. Against this backdrop, a debate is emerging as to whether the carbon-intensity of steel will be the next regulatory battleground in the trade, tariff and anti-trust arenas. One sector that does have the financial firepower is the iron ore industry. The world's biggest iron ore miners have a direct stake in solving the problem of steel emissions. Already there is evidence of this, with BHP committing US$400 million to help fund new technologies and Rio Tinto forming partnerships with some of China's biggest steelmakers. Vale has agreed with Kobe Steel and Mitsui & Co to establish a new venture to supply low-CO2 iron metallics and iron-making solutions to the steel industry, while it has also provided investment to Boston Metal, along with BHP. This marks a tangible shift from the paradigm of the last 20 years, which had seen major miners shy away from investment in downstream industries. In essence, major miners are now making venture capital-type investments into a portfolio of projects that will ultimately fuel the energy transition in the steel sector. Arcelor Mittal has launched its XCarb innovation fund, which will invest in companies developing breakthrough technologies that will accelerate the steel industry's transition to carbon-neutral steelmaking, while another BHP venture is its US$15 million, five-year partnership with Japan's JFE Steel to jointly study technologies and pathways capable of making material reductions to emissions from steel-making. Companies conscious of where the regulatory environment is moving will be better placed in the next decade compared to those that are more tentative. If green steel becomes a proven resource and used widely, it could represent an age-defining development in the energy transition. Vale has invested US$6 million in Boston Metal, a US-based startup developing steel decarbonisation technologies. They are developing a Molten Oxide Electrolysis (MOE) technology, which reduces metal oxides such as iron ore with the use of electricity. Vale, Kobe Steel and Mitsui & Co agree to combine green ironmaking solutions. The new venture will use existing and new low-CO2 iron-making technology such as Tecnored® technology and the MIDREX® Process. Arcelor Mittal launched XCarb™, designed to bring together all of their reduced, low and zero-carbon products and steelmaking activities, as well as wider initiatives and green innovation projects, into a single effort focused on achieving demonstrable progress towards carbon-neutral steel. Rio Tinto teams up with Paul Wurth and SHS-Stahl-Holding-Saar on low-carbon iron in Canada. The partnership will explore the viability of transforming iron ore pellets into low-carbon hot briquetted iron (HBI), a low-carbon steel feedstock, using green hydrogen generated from hydro-electricity in Canada. These companies have helped H2 Green Steel raise US$105 million in its first round of venture capital financing. The Swedish group aims to start production just below the Arctic Circle in 2024 and plans to produce five million tonnes of emission-free steel by the end of the decade by using hydrogen produced with renewable energy to make the alloy rather than the traditional way of burning coke. The joint initiative has commenced building a rock cavern storage facility for fossil-free hydrogen gas on a pilot scale next to HYBRIT's pilot facility for direct reduction in Luleå, North of Sweden. This is an important step in the development of a fossil-free value chain for fossil-free steel. The investment cost of just over SEK 250 million is divided equally across the holding companies and the Swedish Energy Agency, which provides support via Industriklivet. Click here to download the full report: The green edge of steel: Cutting through carbon (PDF) This publication is provided for your convenience and does not constitute legal advice. Century French architect, artisan and designer of some infamy.He first created his designs as bizarre, intricately designed music boxes, as he was well known as a maker of mechanical singing birds.But as a devotee of the occult, he became obsessed with the supernatural which directly influenced the creation of the first puzzle box, known as the 'Lament Configuration' or "The Box of Sorrows".

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