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Read the Report Being a clutch player means you need to have ice in your veins, like Portland Trail Blazers star, Damian Lillard. Weather the storm and etch your name in the history books with some truly clutch moments to prove you’re the coldest player in Season 3. For some reason we can't display an ad here, probably because of an ad blocker. We have full respect if you want to run an ad blocker, but keeping this website and related softwares free depend on ads. We would appreciate if you add us to your white list or consider donating via Paypal. They allow you to see data sent to and from your microcontroller, and that data can be used for a number of reasons including troubleshooting/debugging, communication testing, calibrating sensors, configuring modules, and data monitoring. In short, serial terminal programs make working with microcontrollers that much simpler. This tutorial is here to help you understand what these terms mean and how they form the larger picture that is serial communication over a terminal. For someone who isn't familiar with these terms and the context in which they are used, they can be confusing at times. These are all words that get thrown around a lot when working with electronics, especially microcontrollers. Once you have learned the ins and outs of a terminal application, it can be a very powerful tool in your electronics and programming arsenal. There are lots of different terminal programs out there, and they all have their pros and cons. In this tutorial we will discuss what a terminal is, which terminal programs are best suited for certain situations and operating systems, and how to configure and use each program. You should be familiar with these topics before diving into this tutorial. If you need a refresher, feel free to pop on over to these links. Terminal emulators go by many names, and, due to the varied use of the word terminal, there can often be some confusion about what someone means when they say terminal. To understand the use of the word terminal, we must visit the not so distant past. Back when computers where big, bulky, and took up entire rooms, there were only a handful of ways to interface with them. Punch cards and paper tape reels where one such interface, but there was also what was known as a terminal that was used for entering and retrieving data. These terminals came in many form factors, but they soon began to resemble what would become their personal computer descendants. Terminals that could display text only were referred to as text terminals, and later came graphical terminals. When discussing terminal emulators, it's these terminal of days past that are being referenced. Today, terminal programs are "emulating" the experience that was working on one of these terminals. They are known as emulators, applications, programs, terms, TTYs, and so on. For the purposes of this tutorial, just the word terminal will be used. Many terminals use to emulate specific types of computer terminals, but today, most terminals are more generic in their interface. When working on a modern operating system, the word terminal window will often be used to describe working within one of these applications. And, often, when reading other tutorials and hookup guides, you will be requested to open a terminal window. Just know that means to open whichever one of these terminals programs strikes your fancy. It is also worth noting that many terminal programs are capable of much more than just serial communication. Many have network communication capabilities such as telnet and SSH. However, this tutorial will not cover these features. A terminal is not a command prompt, though the two are somewhat similar. In Mac OS, the command prompt is even called Terminal. Regardless, you can perform some of the same tasks in a command prompt that you could also perform within a terminal window, but it doesn't work the other way around; you cannot issue command line statements within a terminal window. We will go over how to create a serial terminal connection within a command line interface later in this tutorial. For now, just know how to distinguish between the two. Here are some terms you should be familiar with when working within a serial terminal window. Many of these terms are covered in a lot more detail in our Serial Communication tutorial. It highly recommended that you read that page as well to get the full picture. ASCII - Short for the American Standard Code for Information Interchange's character encoding scheme, ASCII encodes special characters from our keyboards and converts them to 7-bit binary integers that can be recognized by a number of programs and devices. ASCII charts are very helpful when working with serial terminals. Baud Rate - In short, baud rate is how fast your data is being transmitted and received. 9600 is the standard rate, but other speeds are typical amongst certain devices. Just remember that all the links in your chain of communication have to be "speaking" at the same speed, otherwise data will be misinterpreted on one end or the other. The TX line on any device is there to transmit data. This should be hooked up to the RX line of the device with which you would like to communicate. The RX line on any device is there to receive data. This should be hooked up to the TX line of the device with which you would like to communicate. COM Port (Serial Port) - Each device you connect to your computer will be assigned a specific port number. Once a device has a port assigned to it, that port will be used every time that device is plugged into the computer. Your device will show up on your computer as either COM# (if you’re on a Windows machine) or /dev/tty.usbserial-######## (if you’re on a Mac/Linux computer), where the #’s are unique numbers or alphabetic characters. Much like terminal is synonymous with the terminals of old, so too is teletype. These were the electromechanical typewriters used to enter information to the terminal and, thus, to the mainframe. When working with terminals on Mac and Linux, you will often see tty used to represent a communication port rather than 'COM port'. Data, Stop, and Parity Bits - Each packet of data sent to and from the terminal has a specific format. These formats can vary, and the settings of your terminal can be adjusted accordingly to work with different packet configurations. One of the most common configurations you'll see is 8-N-1, which translates to 8 data bits, no parity bit, and one stop bit. Flow Control - Flow control is controlling the rate at which data is sent between devices to ensure that the sender is not sending data faster than the receiver can receive the data. In most applications used throughout these tutorials, you will not need to use flow control. The flow control may also be present in the shorthand notation: 8-N-1-None, which stands for no flow control. Carriage Return & Line Feed - Carriage return and line feed are the ASCII characters sent when you press the enter key on your keyboard. These terms have roots from the days of typewriters. Carriage return meant the carriage holding the paper would return to the starting point of that particular line. Line feed (aka new line) meant the carriage should move to the next line to prevent typing over the previous line. When typing on a modern keyboard, these terms still apply. Every time you press enter (or return) you are telling your cursor to move down to the next line and move to the beginning of that new line. Consulting our handy-dandy ASCII table, we can see that the character for line feed is 10 (0x0A in hex) and carriage return is 13 (0x0D in hex). The importance of these two characters cannot be stressed enough. When working in a terminal window you'll often need to be aware of which of these two characters, if not both, are being used to emulate the enter key. Some devices only need one character or the other to know that a command has been sent. More importantly, when working with microcontrollers, be aware of how you are sending data. If a string of 5 characters needs to be sent to the micro, you may need a string that can actually hold 7 characters on account of the 10 and 13 sent after every command. Local Echo - Local echo is a setting that can be changed in either the serial terminal or the device to which you are talking, and sometimes both. This setting simply tells the terminal to print everything you type. The benefit from this is being able to see if you are in fact typing the correct commands should you encounter errors. Be aware, though, that sometimes local echo can come back to bite you. Some devices will interpret local echo as double type. For example, if you type , which is likely not the correct command. Most devices can handle commands with or without local echo. Serial Port Profile (SPP) - The Serial Port Profile is a Bluetooth profile that allows for serial communication between a Bluetooth device and a host/slave device. With this profile enabled, you can connect to a Bluetooth module through a serial terminal. This can be used for configuration purposes or for communication purposes. While not exactly pertinent to this tutorial, it's still good to know about this profile if you want to use Bluetooth in a project. Now that you know what a terminal is and the lingo that comes with the territory, it's time to hook up a device and communicate with it. This page will show you how to connect a device, how to discover which port it has been assigned, and how to communicate over that port. For this example you'll need Once you have all your supplies ready, attach the FTDI Basic to the USB cable, and attach the cable to your computer. If this is the first time you've plugged in a device of this nature into your computer, you may need to install the drivers. If this is the case, visit our FTDI Driver Installation Guide. Depending on which operating system you're using, there are a few different ways to discover which port your device has been assigned. No matter which version of Windows you have, you have a program called Device Manager. To open device manger, open the start menu, and type into the search bar. Or, you can right-click on My Computer, select Properties, and open the Device Manger from there (Windows 7). If you intend on using your computer to communicate with several serial devices, it may be worth creating a desktop shortcut to Device Manger. Once you've got Device Manger open, expand the Ports tab. In this image, we have just a few COM Ports showing up. The first thing to know is that COM1 is ALWAYS reserved for the true Serial Port, not USB. You know those grey, bulky cables, which have a DB9 connection on each end. Many computers (especially laptops) no longer have serial ports, and they are becoming obsolete in exchange for more USB ports. Nevertheless, the OS still reserves COM1 for that port for people who still have an true serial port on their computer. Another port that is likely to show up on most computers is LPT1. Parallel ports and cables are becoming even more obsolete than serial cables, but, again, many computers still have these ports (they're often used to connect to printers) and have to accommodate for that in the OS. With those out of the way, we can focus on the ports that we do need to use. Now with your FTDI plugged in, you should see a new COM port get added to the list. Typically, your computer will enumerate your devices. For instance, if this is the first serial communication device you've plugged into your computer, it should enumerate as COM2. On my computer this is the not the first device I've plugged in, but rather the eighth, so it has enumerated as COM9 (don't forget about COM1). What's important to know is that once a device has been associated with your computer and has had a port assigned to it, the computer will remember that device every time it's attached. So, if you have an Arduino board that has been assigned COM4 for example, it is not necessary to open Device Manger and check which COM port it is on every time, because that device will now always be on COM4. Most people will never plug more than a couple dozen serial devices into their computers. However, some people plug in lots of devices, and your computer can only assign so many ports (256 if I remember correctly). Thus, it may be necessary to delete some COM ports. We will discuss that in the tips and tricks section. If you do have multiple devices and are not sure which device is the one you just plugged in, unplug it, watch for whichever COM port disappears, and then plug it back in. The COM port should reappear letting you know that's the device you're looking for. One last thing to mention is that all serial devices, even if they require different drivers, will show up as COM ports in Windows. Similar to Windows, Mac OS and Linux assign a specific port to every device attached to the computer. For example, an Arduino Uno and the FTDI Basic both have different drivers and are technically two different types of devices. It will treat both devices the same, and all you have to worry about is with which COM port it's associated. However, unlike Windows, there is no specific program you can open up to view all the devices currently attached. There is still a simple solution to find you device. I'm going to assume that if you're using Linux, you already know how to open a command line window. I have several Bluetooth devices paired with my computer, so you may have more or less devices that show up depending on what devices have been paired with your computer. That indicates that Bluetooth device can talk to the serial terminal as well.) The important devices to note are the . The default command line interface for Mac OS X is Terminal. For this example I have both an FTDI Basic and an Arduino Uno plugged into my computer. This is just to show you the key difference between the two. As mentioned earlier, some devices are treated differently depending on how they communicate with the computer. The FT232 IC on the FDTI basic is a true serial device, and, thus, it shows up as device. The HID (Human Interface Device) profile is used for keyboards, mice, joysticks, etc., and, as an HID device, the computer treats it slightly different despite the fact that is can still send serial data. In either case, these ports are what we're after when connecting to a serial terminal. With that out of the way, it's time to actually communicate with the FTDI. The specifics of each terminal program will be discussed in the following sections. This example will be shown in Cool Term, but be aware that this can be done with any terminal. Open up a terminal with the correct settings: 9600, 8-N-1-None. Everything you type should be displayed in the terminal window. It's nothing fancy, but you are now communicating with the terminal. Pending you did turn local echo off, you should not see anything being typed. If you have two FTDI boards or other similar serial devices, try hooking up both of them. Data is being sent from your keyboard, to the computer, through the USB cable to the FTDI, out the FTDI's TX pin, into the RX pin, back through the USB cable, into the computer, and is finally displayed in the terminal window. Connect the TX line of one to the RX line of the other and vise versa. Then, open two serial terminal windows (yes, you can have multiple terminal windows open at once), each connected to a different device. Make sure they are both set to the same baud rate and settings. What you type in one terminal should show up in the opposite terminal and vise versa. The Arduino Integrated Development Environment (IDE) is the software side of the Arduino platform. And, because using a terminal is such a big part of working with Arduinos and other microcontrollers, they decided to included a serial terminal with the software. Within the Arduino environment, this is called the Serial Monitor. Serial monitor comes with any and all version of the Arduino IDE. The Serial Monitor has limited settings, but enough to handle most of your serial communication needs. Click on the baud rate drop-down menu to select the the correct baud rate. Hyper Terminal is the defacto terminal program for any Windows OS up to XP -- Windows Vista, 7, and 8 don't include it. If you're on Windows Vista, 7, or 8, and really just have to have Hyper Terminal, a little scouring of the Internet should turn up some workarounds. Better alternatives are more easily available however- we'll get to those shortly. If you're on a pre-Vista machine, and only have Hyper Terminal to work with, here are some tips and tricks for using it: When initially opening up Hyper Terminal, it will present you with a "Connection Description" dialog. Enter any name you please, and, if you really want to get fancy, select your favorite icon. (If this window didn't pop up go to File The settings on the next box should look pretty familiar. Make sure the "Bits per second" dropdown is set to the correct baud rate. Under the "Settings" tab you'll see most of the options. And verify that all of the other settings are correct. If you want to see what you're typing in the terminal, you can turn on local echo. To flip this switch, hit the "ASCII Setup" button, then check "Echo typed characters locally". Those who have used Hyper Terminal have either come to accept it for what it is, or sought out some other -- any other(! It's not great for serial communication, but it does work. Tera Term is one of the more popular Windows terminal programs. It's been around for years, it's open source, and it's simple to use. For Windows users, it's one of the best options out there. Once you have Tera Term installed, open up it up, and let's poke around. You should initially be presented with a "Tera Term: New connection" pop-up within the program. (If this window doesn't open when you start Tera Term, you can get here by going to ****File That's about all there is to it. Here, you can select which serial port you'd like to open up. The blank window with the blinking cursor is where data is both sent (by typing it in) and received. It can be weird to type stuff in the window and not see it show up in the terminal. It's undoubtedly still flowing through the serial terminal to your device, but it can be difficult to type when you don't have any visual feedback for exactly Check the Local echo box if you'd like to turn the feature on. There are other settings to be made in this window as well. You can adjust the size of the terminal (the values are in terms of characters per row/column), or adjust how new-lines are displayed (either a carriage return, line feed, or both). If you want to clear your terminal screen you can use either the "Clear buffer" or "Clear screen" commands. Clear screen will do just that, blank out the terminal screen, but any data received will still be preserved in the buffer. Scroll up in the window to have another look at it. Clear buffer deletes the entire buffer of received data -- no more data to scroll up to. If you want to get really fast with Tera Term, remember some of these shortcuts: Tera Term is awesome for simple ASCII-only serial terminal stuff, but what if you need to send a string of binary values ranging from 0-255? Real Term is designed specifically for sending binary and other difficult-to-type streams of data. Real Term is available to download on their Source Forge page. When you open up Real Term, you'll be presented with a blank window like below. The top half is where you'll type data to send, and it'll also display data received. On the "Port" dropdown here, select the number of your COM port. The bottom half is split into a number of tabs where we adjust all of the settings. Then, make sure the baud rate and other settings are correct. You can select the baud rate from the dropdown, or type it in manually. With all of those settings adjusted, you'll have to click "Open" twice to close and re-open the port (clicking "Change" doesn't work until after you've established a connection on a COM port). Type stuff in the black ether above to send data, and anything received by the terminal will pop up there too. The ability to send long sequences of binary, hexadecimal, or decimal values is what really sets Real Term apart from the other terminal programs we've discussed. To access this function, head over to the "Send" tab. Then click into either of the two text boxes next to "Send Numbers". This is where you enter your number sequence, each value separated by a space. The numbers can be a decimal value from 0 to 255, or a hexadecimal value, which are prefixed with either a "0x" or a '$'. Once you have your string typed out, hit "Send Numbers" and away they go! Well, let's say you had a Serial Seven Segment Display hooked up to an FTDI Basic, which is connected to your computer. This is a pretty cool setup -- you can control a 7-segment display by just typing in your terminal. You'd need to send two sequential bytes of value 123 and 0. How would you do that with the handful of keys on a keyboard? Consulting an ASCII table to match binary values to characters, you'd have to press DEL for 127 and CTRL SHIFT 2 (^@) for 0..just use the "Send" tab in Real Term! Just as you can use Real Term to send literal binary values, you can also use it to display them. On the "Display" tab, under the "Display As" section are a wide array of terminal display choices. You can have data coming in displayed as standard ASCII characters, or you can have them show up as hex values, or any number of other display types. YAT is a user-friendly and feature-rich serial terminal. Feature Requests and Bug Reports can be entered into the according tracker. The source code is implemented in a very modular way. For more details and contributions to YAT, refer to Cool Term is useful no matter which operating system you're using. It features text as well as binary communication, predefined commands, a multiple-document user interface and lots of extras. Both trackers can be filtered and sorted, either using the predefined searches or the list view. Utilities and I/O sub-systems can also be used independent on YAT, e.g. NET based application that needs serial communication, command line handling or just a couple of convenient utilities. However, it is especially useful in Mac OS where there aren't as many terminal options as there are in Windows. Support is provided by a few simple helps integrated into the application, some screenshots on the Source Forge page, and the project's email if none of the above can help. You can download the latest version of Cool Term here. To change the settings, click the Options icon with the little gear and wrench. You'll be presented with this menu: Here, you can change the enter key emulation (carriage return/line feed), turn local echo off or on, and you can switch between line mode and raw mode. Line mode doesn't send data until enter has been pressed. Once all your setting are correct, the Connect and Disconnect buttons will open and close the connection. The settings and status of your connection will be displayed in the bottom left corner. If you need to clear the data in the terminal screen, click the Clear Data icon with the large red X on it. Now whatever you type will show up as hex and ASCII. If you're getting annoyed with not being able to use the backspace, turn on 'Handle Backspace Character' under the Terminal tab under Options. If you want to see the actual hex values of the data you are sending rather than the ASCII values, Hex View is a tremendous help. The first column is just keeping track of line numbers. The second column is the hex values, and the last column is the actual ASCII characters you type. You can download the latest version of ZTerm here ZTerm is another terminal option for Mac users. Compared to Cool Term, it seems a lot less user friendly, however, once you find your way around, it's just as useful. When you first open ZTerm, you be greeted with this prompt: You should now have a blank terminal window. *Note: Once you've made a connection, ZTerm will open the most recent connection every time you run it. This can be annoying if you have multiple connections available. To get around this auto connect, hold down the SHIFT key as you start ZTerm. This will bypass the auto connect and ask you to which port you'd like to connect. Once you're connected, you can change the terminal settings by going to use command line interfaces to create serial connections. The major limiting factor is the lack of connection options. Most of the programs we've discussed so far have a slew of options that you can tweak for your specific connection, whereas the command line method is more of a quick and dirty way of connecting to your device in a pinch. Here's how to accomplish this on the three major operating systems. See the Connecting to Your Device section for directions. The screen will then ask if you are sure you want to disconnect. There are other options you can control from screen, however it is recommended that you only use this method if you are comfortable with the command line. Type There may come a time when you need a device to be on a specific COM port. An example of this is, in older versions of Tera Term, you could only connect to COM ports 16 and below. Thus, if your device was on COM 17, you'd have to change it to connect to it. This problem has been addressed in newer versions of Tera Term, but there are many other programs out there that only allow a certain number of COM ports. Whatever was connected to COM 9 is now associated with COM 3, and whatever was associated with COM 3 has now been overwritten. To get around this, we'll have to dive into Device Manger. If you need to clear out some old COM ports, you can follow the steps above but for numerous COM ports. WARNING: Do not select COM 1 when cleaning up old ports. This trick is only for if you really need it and shouldn't be performed very often, for sanity's sake. In Unix and Linux environments, each serial communication port has two parts to it, a The difference between the two is that a TTY device is used to call into a device/system, and the CU device (call-up) is used to call out of a device/system. Thus, this allows for two-way communication at the same time (full-duplex). This is more important to know if you are doing network communications through a terminal or other program, but it is still a question that comes up frequently. Just know that, for the purposes of this tutorial, always use the tty option for serial communication. You can only have one connection to a particular port open at any given time (but you can have multiple terminal windows connected to different ports open at the same time). Thus, if you have an Arduino Serial Monitor window open and try to connect to that same port on a different terminal program, it will yell at you and say it could not establish a connection with that port or some such jazz. If you are ever having trouble connecting to a port, make sure it's not open somewhere else. If you don't have another connection open and still can't connect, make sure all your settings (baud rate, etc.) are correct. If you are connected to the correct port but don't see any data, there are two possible culprits. I know I sound like a broken record, but baud rate is the most important setting to match up. The other culprit could be that the TX and RX lines are reversed. The Arduino has one dedicated UART, which is just the fancy name for the serial TX and RX lines. It is over these two lines that the Arduino gets programmed. Thus, when working with the Arduino (or other microcontrollers) it's best to avoid using these lines to communicate with other serial devices, especially if you are developing your code and need to upload frequently. What happens is, if you have another device hooked up to the UART, the data from your computer might not get interpreted correctly by the Arduino leading to code not working the way it's supposed to or not getting uploaded at all. If you have a terminal open on the same port that you are trying to program, it won't work. Arduino will throw some errors about not being able to communicate with that port. If this happens, close your connection, and try again. One simple way around this is to use the Software Serial Library built into Arduino to create a separate UART for outside serial communication. That way, your Arduino can communicate on one port while still leaving the default UART open for programming. At the very least, you should walk away from this knowing what a terminal window is, how to use it, which terminal program is best suited for you and your operating system, and how to navigate that program's interface. Again, terminal programs are a very powerful tool when working with serial devices and microcontrollers. If you'd like to know more about different types of communication, visit these tutorials: Sections Serial Terminal Overview What is a Terminal?Microcontrollers employ multiple approaches to communicate synchronously with peripheral devices and other microcontrollers. The synchronous serial interface (SSI) system can operate as a master or as a slave. The channel can have one master and one slave, or it can have one master and multiple slaves. With multiple slaves, the configuration can be a star (centralized master connected to each slave), or a ring (each node has one receiver and one transmitter, where the nodes are connected in a circle.) The master initiates all data communication. The Nokia5110 is an optional LCD display as shown in Figure 11.13. The interface uses one of the synchronous serial ports on the TM4C123. Another name for this protocol is Serial Peripheral Interface or SPI. The fundamental difference between a UART, which implements an asynchronous protocol, and a SSI, which implements a synchronous protocol, is the manner in which the clock is implemented. Two devices communicating with asynchronous serial interfaces (UART) operate at the same frequency (baud rate) but have two separate clocks. With a UART protocol, the clock signal is not included in the interface cable between devices. Two UART devices can communicate with each other as long as the two clocks have frequencies within ±5% of each other. Two devices communicating with synchronous serial interfaces (SSI) operate from the same clock (synchronized). With a SSI protocol, the clock signal is included in the interface cable between devices. Typically, the master device creates the clock, and the slave device(s) uses the clock to latch the data (in or out.) The SSI protocol includes four I/O lines. The slave select SSI0Fss is a negative logic control signal from master to slave signal signifying the channel is active. The second line, SCK, is a 50% duty cycle clock generated by the master. The SSI0Tx (master out slave in, MOSI) is a data line driven by the master and received by the slave. The SSI0Rx (master in slave out, MISO) is a data line driven by the slave and received by the master. In order to work properly, the transmitting device uses one edge of the clock to change its output, and the receiving device uses the other edge to accept the data. SSI allows data to flow both directions, but the Nokia5110 interface only transmits data from the TM4C123. Notice the pin PA4 is not used, which would have allowed for receiving data from the device. Program 11.9 shows the I/O port connections and the Nokia display. Be careful, there are multiple displays for sale on the market with the same LCD but different pin locations for the signals. Please look on your actual display for the pin name and not the pin number. Program 11.9 also lists some of the prototypes for public functions available in the software stater project. If you have ordered and received the Nokia5110 display, open the C11_Nokia5110 starter project, connect the display to Port A. Be careful when connecting the backlight, at 3.3V, the back light draws 80 m A. If you want a dimmer back light connect 3.3V to a 100 ohm resistor, and the other end of the resistor to the // Blue Nokia 5110 // --------------- // Signal (Nokia 5110) Launch Pad pin // Reset (RST, pin 1) connected to PA7 // SSI0Fss (CE, pin 2) connected to PA3 // Data/Command (DC, pin 3) connected to PA6 // SSI0Tx (Din, pin 4) connected to PA5 // SSI0Clk (Clk, pin 5) connected to PA2 // 3.3V (Vcc, pin 6) power // back light (BL, pin 7) not connected, consists of 4 white LEDs which draw ~80m A total // Ground (Gnd, pin 8) ground // Red Spark Fun Nokia 5110 (LCD-10168) // ----------------------------------- // Signal (Nokia 5110) Launch Pad pin // 3.3V (VCC, pin 1) power // Ground (GND, pin 2) ground // SSI0Fss (SCE, pin 3) connected to PA3 // Reset (RST, pin 4) connected to PA7 // Data/Command (D/C, pin 5) connected to PA6 // SSI0Tx (DN, pin 6) connected to PA5 // SSI0Clk (SCLK, pin 7) connected to PA2 // back light (LED, pin 8) not connected, consists of 4 white LEDs which draw ~80m A total//********Nokia5110_Init***************** // Initialize Nokia 5110 48x84 LCD by sending the proper // commands to the PCD8544 driver. // inputs: none // outputs: none // assumes: system clock rate of 50 MHz or less void Nokia5110_Init(void); //********Nokia5110_Out Char***************** // Print a character to the Nokia 5110 48x84 LCD. The // character will be printed at the current cursor position, // the cursor will automatically be updated, and it will // wrap to the next row or back to the top if necessary. // One blank column of pixels will be printed on either side // of the character for readability. Since characters are 8 // pixels tall and 5 pixels wide, 12 characters fit per row, // and there are six rows. // inputs: data character to print // outputs: none // assumes: LCD is in default horizontal addressing mode (V = 0) void Nokia5110_Out Char(char data); //********Nokia5110_Out String***************** // Print a string of characters to the Nokia 5110 48x84 LCD. // The string will automatically wrap, so padding spaces may // be needed to make the output look optimal. // inputs: new X new X-position of the cursor (0 For more information about SSI, see Section 8.3 in Embedded Systems: Introduction to ARM Cortex-M Microcontrollers, 2013, ISBN: 978-1477508992 or Section 7.5 in Embedded Systems: Real-Time Interfacing to ARM® Cortex TM-M Microcontrollers, ISBN: 978-1463590154 Reprinted with approval from , 2021, ISBN: 978-1477508992, from Embedded Systems: Real-Time Interfacing to Arm® Cortex™-M Microcontrollers, 2021, ISBN: 978-1463590154, Jonathan Valvano and Ramesh Yerraballi is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 International License. // inputs: ptr pointer to NULL-terminated ASCII string // outputs: none // assumes: LCD is in default horizontal addressing mode (V = 0) void Nokia5110_Out String(char *ptr); //********Nokia5110_Out UDec***************** // Output a 16-bit number in unsigned decimal format with a // fixed size of five right-justified digits of output. // Inputs: n 16-bit unsigned number // Outputs: none // assumes: LCD is in default horizontal addressing mode (V = 0) void Nokia5110_Out UDec(uint16_t n); //********Nokia5110_Set Cursor***************** // Move the cursor to the desired X- and Y-position. 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